Urban planning without consideration for environmental factor result in poor living conditions
which manifest differently. Sustainable urban development requires achieving and
maintaining a balance development and environmental goals. Our approach in planning for
the environment needs to see the environment as a system and be specific on issue of
substituting environmental goals with economic gains. This is how better quality of
environment can be achieved and sustained. This research aims to contribute toward the urban
management and governance in residential area of Metropolitan Lagos, basically through
studying the nature of urban management and governance in Agege local government area,
Lagos with a view to highlighting its management problems. In order to achieve the afore
stated aim, socio economic characteristics of the people (inhabitants); the extents of
involvement of people in provision of infrastructural facility(s); environmental condition in
the study area and the extents of which government carry the people along in project
execution in Agege local government area was assess; while the objective also looks into
ways to establish the relationship between residents, government agency(s) and environmental
characteristics in the study area; and to examine the government agencies functions through
available policy. Questionnaires were randomly administered to residents of the study area to
sample their opinion on the inherent nature of urban management and governance problems in
the study area. As a complement, government agencies functions through available policy was
adopted of which adoption of inappropriate planning concept; duplication of functions of
statutory agencies managing and governing our urban areas; problem of attitudes, indiscipline
and lack of political will and finance was discovered all which could be called a are numerous
pitfalls, ranging from conceptual issues to lack of explicit demarcation of functions as well as
to attitudinal and political considerations.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The urban environment is a complex living entity. In a general sense, it is an
ecosystem consisting of the structure and infrastructure built in a defined area, the
naturally occurring resources and conditions that enable a city to exist, and all the human
beings who reside and work in it. All these components are affected by urban growth.
Consequently, when problems arise, urban administrators need to consider many factors
in their search for solutions; these include physical, socioeconomic, political, and
institutional factors. Economic valuation can provide them with a strong foundation for
urban problem solving. Developing countries including Nigeria have undergone rapid
urbanization since World War II – and are now experiencing many of the attendant
problems. All recent analyses suggest that urbanization is an irreversible process, but that
its dimensions in the developing world are as yet poorly understood. To begin with, the
actual extent of urbanization among countries is unclear because urban areas are defined
differently from country to country. Moreover, in many cases, population censuses are
inaccurate or nonexistent. There is little difficulty, however, in identifying the problems
associated with urbanization.
In these times of increasing globalization, the future of major cities is undoubtedly
one of metropolization, and the challenge is to manage, in a democratic way, millions of
inhabitants spread out over wide areas and separated by differences in income, cultural
background and citizenship. The development of these cities is torn between a strong relationship with the local environment and the trend of globalization. Through a
comparative study of different major cities from around the world with varied historical
and social contexts, this research outlines different thoughts on various methods relating
to the new urban geography. The subject is the future of major cities, and these are
considered both as agents and targets of change. There is an analysis of the spatial
dimension of urban politics and, more precisely, of the relations between the different
concepts, the objectives, and the implementation of space regulations and the new urban
The global political economy has undergone rapid changes in the last two decades,
which has produced an entirely new setting for urban development in most of Africa,
Asia and Latin America. The reorganization has been accompanied by an entirely new
type of inequality, one that is no longer geographical but social, and that cuts across
nations. This has been true also of the urban system, with many major cities reasserting
their importance and others facing new challenges of which urban management and
governance have been using as a tool to resolve the problem.
Urban Management Programme (UMP) is a 10-year global technical cooperation
program designed to strengthen the contribution that cities and towns in developing
countries make toward human development, including economic growth, social
development, and the reduction of poverty. Its ultimate beneficiaries are the citizens who
live in and use cities and towns – particularly the urban poor who will receive better
managed services and more accountable, participatory, and transparent management as a result of the programme. The Urban Management Programme through its regional offices
seeks to strengthen urban management by harnessing the skills and strategies of networks
of regional experts, communities, and organizations in the public and private sectors.
The programme’s goal is to strengthen the local and regional expertise through the
City and Consultations of which Urban Management Programme brings together national
and local authorities, the private sector, community representatives, and other actors
within a country to discuss specific problems within its subject areas and to propose
reasoned solutions. Consultations are held solely at the request of a developing country
and often provide a forum for discussion of a cross-section of issues, generally resulting
in a concrete action plan for policy program change and Technical Cooperation with the
aid of the regional networks of expertise to sustain follow-up to the consultations by
providing technical advice and cooperation to facilitate implementation of action plans
and to mobilize the resources needed for their implementation.
Moreover, recently the terms “governance” and “good governance” are being
increasingly used in development literature while bad governance is being increasingly
regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and
international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the
condition that reforms that ensure “good governance” are undertaken. This study tries to
explain, as simply as possible, what “governance” and “good governance” means. The
concept of “governance” as it is not new but it is as old as human civilization. Simply put
“governance” as the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are 4
implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as
corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local
governance. Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by
which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and
informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and
the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance
vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for
example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers,
cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political
parties, the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex between
actors involved in urban governance likewise in the national level, in addition to the
above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors; multi-national corporations, etc. may
play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process.
Traditional approaches to the management of urban development were fragmented,
dividing responsibility for the operation and management of individual services (water,
sanitation, transportation, health, etc.) sectorally and association “planning” with physical
planning. The results are well all known: poor coordination between service providers,
dis-junctures between installation and operation and maintenance, and static blueprint
land use plans that were not implemented because of their reliance on (ineffective) controls over private sector development. Although the exacerbated by the weakness of
the local government, tricky central-local relations, inadequate revenue bases, inherited
land-use pattern and widening inequalities between urban groups, approaches to the
urban development process were conceptually and practically deficient (Devas and
Rakodi, 1993a). Attempts to device more adequate approaches have redefine “planning”
and adopted it in tandem with “management” to embrace the full range of government
intervention in the development and day-to-day operations of the city. Whereas urban
planning is concerned primarily with anticipating and preparing for the future, and
particularly with the spatial and land-use dimension of urban development, urban
management is concerned more with the operation of a range of a public services and
with a variety of interventions that affect urban conditions as a whole (Devas and Rakodi,
The approaches to urban management established in the days of colonial and
promoted subsequently by donors, education and training, and research outputs have been
subject to widespread criticism (Kironde, 1992). In addition, problems with the design,
implementation and continued operation of externally finance project of which led to
some reconsideration or urban lending (World Bank, 1991). Although it is unanimously
agreed that changes were and are needed, the adoption and promotion of “urban
management” by the international agencies have been treated with considerable
skepticism. This could be minimized through the following suggestion if the World Bank
really wants best result on what they invest on
They should enable the agencies to move away from the shelter project to more
They should make a signal shift from a public sector static perspective of
development to a neo-liberal perspective concerned with efficiency and the
coordination of public and private sector activities; and
They should maintain organizational flexibility to vary programme components.
Effective urban management requires competence in running individual services,
integrated approaches to redevelopment and development of new areas, and responses to
overall challenges such as economic decline or environmental deterioration.
Consideration must thus be given to the specific functions of an urban management
system and also to mechanisms for decision-making and coordination. Administrative
arrangements are needed to generate resources, defined responsibilities, and provide staff,
as well as to ensure the tasks of policy formulation, resource allocation, implementation,
operation; maintenance, regulation, and promotion are carried out in an efficient and
coordinated manner. Actions are needed with respect to urban economic development,
physical and social infrastructure and services, land, shelter and environmental problem.
A city is a system- an ecological and social system of material and energy floes,
governed by information, yet controlled by an ethical scale of values. It has been
seventeen years since the Earth summit at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and it is known that
human activities are causing grave and perhaps irreparable damage to the global
environment. The problem runs from local air and water pollution to the destruction of forests, global climatic change, diminished diversity of plant and animal species,
generation of toxic waste, degradation of land, and scarcity of water and atmosphere
contamination. Daly and Mikesell (1994) assert that any project carried out in the
environment by human being should meet the need of the present generation, without
compromising the need of the future generation.
In most sub-Saharan African countries, the state lacks the capacity to fulfill the key
tasks of urban management, including issuing and registration of titles and regulation of
sub division and use. This is partly because the colonial administrations believed that
indigenous arrangements were inappropriate for urban use and so imported land use
systems from the colonizing country.
Most African governments, especially immediately after independence, interpreted
the demand for housing as a welfare question and a legitimate right of a newly liberated
people, rather than as part of a crucial national economic sector. This perception resulted
in severe policy distortions, from which entanglements many governments have still to
find a way out. The quality of life of all people depends, among other economic, social,
environmental and cultural factors, on the physical conditions and spatial characteristics
of villages, town and cities. City layout and aesthetics, land use patterns, population and
building densities, transportation and ease of access of all to basic goods, services and
public amenities have a crucial bearing on the livability of settlement (UNCHS, 1996).
Sustainability and sustainable development are tropical issues both at international,
national and local levels of which Nigeria is included. In environmental studies of which comprises of various profession such as Architecture, Civil engineering, Building
construction, land surveying, Estate management, Quantity surveyor and Urban and
regional planning. In our professional known as Urban and regional planning or Town
and regional planning or Town and country planning so to say; the issue of sustainable
urban settlements, in particular, is equally tropical. The rout to achieving sustainable
cities in Nigeria, as it is elsewhere, is a complex and multi-faceted one with its
requirements, demand and problems.
Sustainable development is predicted on the articulation and incorporation of
environmental and human needs in the pursuit of economic growth development
objectives (Aina, et al 1992). It however has human, sociological, economic, and physical
development dimensions. A rising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption
patterns have had an unintended and negative impact on the urban environment –
generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and
agencies, poor road management, problems of spatial socio-economic and demographic
change, housing problem to mention few. Cities are now grappling with the problems of
high volumes of waste, increase in blighted/slum areas, poor quality of building
materials use, pollution e.t.c; the costs involved, the disposal technologies and
methodologies, and the impact of these on the local and global environment as a result of
urbanization, environmental degradation and urban poverty.
Nigeria like any other developing country, is experiencing rapid urbanization, which,
over two decade ago was put at starting rate of 11% per annum, and whose population is at an explosive population growth rate of 3% per annum (Sada 1999). Individual urban
Lagos metropolis had a growth rate of about 19% and Ilorin about 16% annually (Sada
1973). So, therefore, urban planning has been accepted and adopted as a management
mechanism for controlling human activities and actions taking place over our urban
It is not surprising that metropolitan area frequently receive a disproportionate share
of government attention and planning activities. It is not clear, however, that such
planning processes take full account of:
The socio-economic and political context within which planning activities occur,
The capacity of the state bureaucracies to plan and implement, or
The certainties and dynamics of the long range processes of restructuring within
regions and urban settlement system terms (|Rakodi, 1992).
This research looks at the current state of urban management and governance in the
residential area of Lagos metropolis, covering the problems of rapid urban growth –
particularly informal growth. International experience with urban management is covered
as well as formal approaches to solving housing problems, namely public housing
programmes, sites-and-services and upgrading. The debate is brought into the present
with a section on the growing acknowledgement by some governments of the informal
sector as a legitimate area of city life. Urban land development is increasingly taking
place outside of weak systems of planning control and land ownership legislation, and for nearly three decades the majority of land seekers have found the informal sector more
responsive to their demands for housing land. This parallel system of social regulation at
the grassroots is largely well adapted to local needs, norms and competence and, in some
areas, is even able to link up with formal institutions in the public sector.
The main section looks at urbanization trends and urban management practices as
well as the impact of rapid urban growth on land management capability. There is a
problem of increased densification in informal settlements with a chronic shortage of
planned plots for housing. This leads to health hazards and increased environmental
degradation. Where plots are allocated however, there is slow development and prime
sites tend to be under-utilized partly due to prohibitive standards and lack of capital but
also due to speculation and the low costs of holding a piece of prime land.
Measures will be put in place to improve the poor urban management system and
governance in residential area. The next section returns to urban management and
governance on residential area in Lagos Metropolis and covers population growth,
informal housing, the administrative setting and general land development patterns in
inner-cities and intermediate and peri-urban zones and the study concludes with policy
implications and a conclusion.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Generally, problems bedeviling any human environment could be manifest or latent
or both. Invariably, this study examines the factors militating against effective urban management and governance in residential areas of metropolitan Lagos or better still,
problems posing management challenges to the people and the government in the study
A duplicate responsibility has been identified as the major limitation to effective
urban management in urban area of the entire nation of which the study area cannot be
excluded. This is further compounded with the immediate work restriction, conflict of
interest and overlap of functions of government agencies. The menace of duplicate
responsibility is so pronounced in our urban area.
Another problematic trend that is firmly rooted in this dissertation is problems of
attitudes, indiscipline and lack of political will, adoption of inappropriate planning
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
Unemployment is consequent upon the influx of migrants from rural areas into urban
areas. Many of these are unemployable due to their lack of education or skills. Our fast
growing type of urbanization which lacks a commensurate level of industrialization and
other job-creating economic activities is, perhaps, a more serious cause of urban
unemployment. The result is manifested in hawking, street trading and other informal
sector activities as well as their attendant problems, social vices and so on. Lack of job is
seriously linked to urban poverty.
facilities, services, amenities or infrastructure for their inhabitants (e.g health, education,
recreation, portable water, energy etc.).
While manageability problems relate to issues of planning and upkeep of the city, the
maintenance of the roads, markets and other systems within the city. The dual city
phenomenon and the existence of urban districts in many of our urban areas today- the
creations of colonialism- add to our urban management, development and governance.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study is narrowed to contribute toward effective urban management and
governance in residential area of Agege local government area, Lagos; while looking at
the urbanization trends and land management practices as well as the impact of rapid
urban growth and management capability and the current state of urban management and
governance in residential area in the study area, covering the problems of rapid urban
growth – particularly informal growth. International experience with urban management
is covered as well as formal approaches to solving housing problems, namely public
housing programmes, sites-and-services and upgrading.
1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.5.1 AIM OF STUDY
This study aims at studying the nature of urban management and governance in
Agege local government area, Lagos with a view to highlighting its management
In order to achieve the afore stated aim, the objectives are as stated below:
(i) To assess the socio economic characteristics of the people (inhabitants) in Agege
local government area
(ii) To examine the extents of involvement of people in provision of infrastructural
(iii) To examine the environmental condition in the study area and the extents of
which government carry the people along in project execution
(iv) To examine the role of Agege Local Government Council Area in the
management and governance of its area,
(v) To establish the relationship between residents, government agency(s) and
environmental characteristics in the study area; and
(vi) To examine the government agencies functions through available policy.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Basically, the study was based on product of first hand view which wass observation
and experience instead of only theory and information obtained through the review of related literature and personal interviews with some officials of some appropriate
government agencies, community development associations (residents’ association) in
Agege local Government area and personal observation with the situation in Lagos
metropolis (urban area). Findings were augmented with secondary information from
appropriate sources. It must be emphasized that the methodology took due knowledge of
factors with direct impact on the observed situation.
1.6.1 DATA TYPES AND SOURCES
The intricate nature of urban management and governance in a completely built-up
environment like Lagos necessitated the greater dependence on direct information.
Hence, primary data were used with secondary data as complement. The primary data
were appropriately sourced from direct observation, sampling of views from residents’
association and appropriate government agencies through the questionnaire.
Secondary data used were sourced from library (textbooks, internet and journals),
Geo-informatics (unpublished works and maps), lecture notes, the Lagos State Physical
Development Authority (LASPHYDA) and informal sources.
1.6.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
Basically, this exercise was empirically based on both primary and secondary data
collections which were sourced from questionnaires (administered to randomly selected
respondents, residents’ association).
Secondary data were sourced from appropriate quarters such as the National
Population Commission, Ministries, Local government workers, library, journals and
textbooks. A compilation of apposite aids e.g. maps, are of immense assistance in the
final analysis of the exercise.
1.6.3 INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The instruments used in the collection of data for the study are mostly for the primary
data, which form the crux of the study. These include on-the direct observation,
questionnaires and oral interview. Some of these instruments are discussed below:
DIRECT OBSERVATION: This took the form of on-the-spot direct observation so as
to have a first hand feel and view of site situations. Certain phenomena were observed as
they occur in reality with regards to cause, effect and dimension. This method will also
avail one of the opportunities to relate the interrelationship among the various
government agencies observed.
QUESTIONAIRES: A sets of questionnaires was prepared and administer accordingly.
498 questionnaires were prepared of which is 10% of the sample size of the research and
administered to residents of the selected residential areas involved within the study area.
This move expedite the collection of relevant information on the urban problems, causes,
dimensions and effects as well as the challenges faced by the residents association as well
as resident and possible solutions with considerable management implication. It is
important to note that the questionnaires served as orderly guides for sampling and the
removal of bias from the stream of questions asked, irrespective of the spatial variation
and agencies of respondents, as the case may be.
In addition, secondary information was sourced from National Population Census
data of 2006, local government, journals, textbooks and maps all of which played
innumerable role in the final analysis.
1.6.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
220.127.116.11 Sample Frame and Sample Size
In order to source for information from residents’ associations and government
agencies officers; two different sample sizes were adopted in view of the direction of the
study. The entire population of Agege local government area as at 2006 Federal
government census report which stated that the total population of Agege is 459,939
(Source: 2006 PCN) while 492,698 for population projection to 2008. The area has
eleven (11) wards which are Dopemu, Idi Mangoro, Orile-Agege, Keke, Ajegunle,
Tabon-Tabon, Isale-Odo, Oke-Koto, Papa Ashafa, Oniwaya and Iloro. To obtain the
sample frame for this study, eight (8) wards were randomly selected from the eleven
wards in Agege local government area. From each of the eight wards, streets with the
highest number of building that is residential buildings were selected. A total of four
thousand nine hundred and ninety (4990) buildings were identified in the eight selected
wards through field work counting. This figure represents the sample frame for the study.
A sample size of ten percent was taken randomly from the total number on each of the
selected streets that is each building has equal right to be taken for sampling. This was a
total of four hundred and ninety eight (498) buildings selected as the sample size of the
This study adopts systematic sampling method for the selection of four hundred and
ninety eight buildings. Thus every tenth building was systematically selected from each
of the eighteen streets, from each of the four hundred and ninety eight buildings selected.
The questionnaires were structured and administered to the landlord and/or resident of the
Without doubt, the credibility of any research endeavor depends largely on the
originality of the sourced data. Meanwhile, such data might not be accepted unless the
generally accepted convention is abided with. In-fact, the objectives of the study as well
as the eventual conclusion must bear correlation with the methodology and analyzed data
using specified techniques.
1.6.5 DATA ANALYSIS
The analysis of the data was through sorting and categorization of results analyzed
while the results are presented using descriptive statistical tables such as tables, charts
and pictures. Above all, explanatory notes and discussion was extensively carried out to
throw more light on seemingly knotty points and findings with ample deduction and
inferences. A more detailed explanation will be given in chapter five of this research.
1.7 LIMITATION TO STUDY
As earlier envisaged, the study pose demoralizing tonic during the course of the study
in view of encumbrances encountered. Constraints were encountered particularly in data.
collection, as most respondents were skeptical while some indifferent when contacted.
Nevertheless, persistent and unrelenting efforts pave the way for sizeable number of
In addition, procurement of maps as well as demarcation of exact study area was
thorns in the flesh. Assistance of friends and some money did the magic for the maps
presented in this report. Above all, time constraint and inadequate fund were both potent
limiting factors and impediment to timely and satisfactory research exercise. These were
however, overcome with earlier completion of the semester examination and working
within the ambit of limited time and available fund.
1.8 RELEVANCE TO URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING
Physical planning is concerned with the location of land uses and allocation of spaces
since all happen in the physical space, the concerns for the rights and needs of
disadvantaged and marginalized sectors of the population, precisely the poor and the less
privilege people of the society who are seriously affected by the unequal distribution of
resources. Therefore this study aim to address the identified problems from the view of
urban management and governance which should not be deprived off to every citizen or
dwellers of urban areas as the case in the study area; in respect to the informal growth as
a result of improper urban management and governance on the environment of Agege
local government area of Lagos state and to suggest on the possible solutions that may be
The expected contribution to knowledge of this research work, is the acquisition of
knowledge in the area of urban management and governance and their combined effects
on Agege local government area with regards to attaining a sustainable development in
all ramifications so that it will give more focus on what is not seen as a problem but
endangers the entire community and environment
1.10 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Management: is the art of getting things done through people.
Metropolitan Area: forming large city of which constitute a large urban area, usually
one that includes a city and its suburbs and outlining areas.
Sustainability: is the means of meeting the present needs without jeopardizing future
needs or requirement.
Sustainable Urban Development: a development that improves the long-term social and
ecological health of cities and towns.
Urban governance: the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and
private, plan and manage the common affairs of the city. It is a continuing process
through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and co-
operative action can be taken. It includes formal institutions as well as informal
arrangements and the social capital of citizens’.
Urban Management: Is a set of mechanisms coordinating technical services and
regulation contributing to urban operations, a set of acts aiming to reconcile
antagonist demands and interests that can not be equally satisfied-made up the foundations of new politico-institutional engineering that aimed, through
structural adjustment plans, to reform post-colonial states whose nature and
operations were considered to hamper development and democracy-building that
is raising awareness of the role of cities and of the range of elements that must be
managed to make cities livable.