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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is reported by different kinds of media; radio, television and newspaper that hostility and violence are perhaps the most common forms of interaction between people in today’s society. Reports of assault, random violent, gun fights, violent threat and other forms of attacks are continually in the headlines. It appears as if one lives in a world that is increasingly violent and out of control. Unfortunately, adolescents are not immune to this violent behaviour, either as perpetrators or victims because may live in violent communities for most of their lives (Elliot S.N 2002).
The term school violent was not widely used to describe aggressive and violent behaviour in schools until 1992. A University of California database that includes five national newspapers only listed 179 citations of school violence prior to 1992. However, the following eight years brought about a 70% increase in these citations. Research articles on school violence began to increase slowly throughout the 1980’s and have shown exponential growth throughout the 1990’s (Furlong & Morrison, 2000). The definition of school violence has evolved over the past 10 years and now has been “conceptualized as a multi-faceted construct that involves both criminal acts and aggression in schools, which inhibit development and learning, as well as harm the school’s climate (Furlong & Morrison, 2000).
Violent behaviour that adolescents exhibit in schools is a concern for everyone. Most adolescents are involved directly or indirectly in this situation. This experience does not only affect learners but also education personnel, teachers, parents, school governing bodies, students, representative councils and the community at large. This behavior frequently interrupts.
Children will actually be indirectly supporting the student violent behavior. Some of these parents are said to be tired of dealing with their child’s problems and some parents believe that there is nothing they can do to control their children (Harris, 2013).
The smooth running of the school and leads to a school climate not conducive to learning and teaching. It places everybody’s life at risk and makes the culture of learning and teaching very difficult.
The family according to SACE (2011) has been argued to be one of the most influential socializing contexts in childhood and throughout adolescent. It is important to explore family as an external determinant to establish how these factors contribute to violent behavior among students.
Parents play an essential role in modeling behaviour. If children are exposed to violence at home they tend to model that behaviour (Barbour, 2011; Paterson, 2012). If they see constant fighting in the house they will learn to judge violent behavior as the appropriate manner to deal with conflict ward. (2007 cited in Burton, 2008). Frey, Ruchkin, Martin and Schwob-Stone (2009) found out that violence exposed students reported significantly high levels of antisocial behavior and willingness to use physical aggression than their non-exposed counterparts. Homes in which parents frequently quarrel has been linked to stress in children and this usually results in physical and emotional illness. Morais and Meier (2011), argue that about 10% of respondents professed to often seeing their parents verbally or physically fighting. Therefore if children are exposed to aggression displays between adult partners at home, they will carry these experiences with them into the school.
Lack of love and affection by parents or guardians maybe linked to violent behavior exhibited by learners. It has been scientifically proved that if a child is not getting proper love and affection then he or she will have mental disturbances (Resnick, 2004). This mental disturbance can lead to violent attitude in the child. In most cases the child will grow to be an arrogant child because he or she might feel neglected. It is important that parents give sufficient care and love to their children in order to make sure that their child grows with proper attitudes.
Barbour (2011) pointed out that neglect can inhibit the development of communication skills and self-esteem can be seriously damaged limited involvement of the parents in the child’s activities may result in him or her being violent (Difonzo, 2008).
Parental supervision and involvement help children to cope despite challenging environment. Parent’s encouragement of discussing the child’s feeling and parent led conversation about morality play a strong role in children’s capability for socio-economic adjustment after witnessing community violence (Frey 2009). Without adult supervision, learners may find it difficult to distinguish right from wrong. They struggle without the ability to resolve conflict peacefully. Poipoi (2011) in the Western Province of Kenya revealed that 51.2% of respondents in rural schools perceived low level of supervision as contributing to violence in schools. Harsh parental discipline is associated with higher levels of aggressiveness among students (Resnick, 2004). Harsh physical punishment given to the child at home may influence the child to exhibit violent behavior as a way of protesting against their parents. If children watch his or her parents divorcing, he or she might experience mental tension and pressure. This experience might lead to violence as divorce brings in unpredictability, unreliability and insecurity into the child’s life (Gasa, 2005). Anxiety, anger, grief and shame are common responses.
Parental attitude towards drugs and crime is associated with child’s behavior. Parental alcohol abuse and presence of guns in the home may encourage a child to follow his or her parent’s footsteps (Difonzo 2008). Parents who abuse alcohol and drugs affect children in the sense that it leads to psychological, emotional, social neglect and low self-esteem. The child of a drug and alcohol dependent parent can be deprived from appropriate physical care and can be neglected. This can impede the child’s social and psychological development and might influence children to become drug users themselves (Paterson 2012). This might in turn influence the child to be violent.
In a research conducted by Gasa (2005) about 25.3% of respondents confirmed that their fathers drink excessively. Furthermore, in another research conducted by Paterson (2012) in South Africa revealed that drug and alcohol abuse was prevalent in many homes and neighborhood of the participants. Accordingly it is evident that drug and alcohol abuse is often accompanied by violent behaviors. Television media have also been liked to violence among students. Allowing students to watch movies that depict violence and other illegal activities, will lead students to try and imitate because of their fascination (Harris 2013). Entertainment shows like wrestling and fighting usually drive young minds crazy hence they are easily prone to imitate the moves on their friends. A study by Poipio et al (2011) revealed that 38.3% of students in rural schools and 44.6% in urban schools pointed out exposure to violent films and movies as contributing to violence among students.
Some of the parental practices may contribute to students’ violence. For example; parents who refuse to visit the school to discuss the antisocial behavior that is manifested by their children will actually be indirectly supporting the student violent behaviour. Some of these parents are said to be tired of dealing with their child’s problems and some parents believe that there is nothing they can do to control their children (Harris 2013).
Behavior is considered abnormal or antisocial if it is uncommon, different from the norm and does not conform to what society expects. This idea is also closely related to the statistical approach to definite abnormality which rest on the idea that differences in human behavior tends to fall into a normal distribution curve (Nwankwo et al 2010). A particular behaviour is not acceptable or is antisocial if any of these three criteria are seen; the behavior does not allow a person to function effectively with others as member of society; if the behaviour does not permit the person to meet his or her own needs and the behavior has a negative effect in the well-being of others (Roberts 1981). However, young people are segregated from adult society and such segregation serves as an important contribution to antisocial behaviour by teenagers. Period of adolescence is the most crucial period in the life of human beings and is the stage where life reaches its peak (Nwanko 2001).
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The violent behaviour is believed to result from under socialization and inadequate training of children which make them to proffer reasons for indulging in an unacceptable behaviour. The mature moral judgment occurs between 12 and 18 years of age and any student who falls within the age range is expected to be of good behavior, but indiscipline has come to take the place of this esteemed virtue which threatens the favorable atmosphere of secondary schools and the society at large.
It emphasized these behavioral problems affect academic achievement and performance. This stage is where adolescents are being exposed to a lot of social vices and behaviours.
In view of these claims, this study ought to determine the different forms of family factors that influence junior especially in Ifo Local Government Area in Ogun State.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study was to find out the different forms of family factors that influence adolescents whereby selected secondary schools in Ifo Local Government Area of Ogun State is used as a case study.
The specific objective of the study is to:-
- Investigate different forms of family factors that influence violent behaviour.
- Investigate on how to reduce forms of family factors that influence violent behaviors.
- To determine the implication of family factors on violent behavior.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were to be answered:-
- Does family size influence violent behavior
- Does level of education influence violent behavior
- Does residential environment influence violent behavior
- Does family structure influence violent behavior
- SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The work of this nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the influence of family has on children and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to their violent behavior. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up their wards in such a way that they will perform morally.
The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation and the world at large to benefit from adherence to the recommendations and implementation will help produce adolescents who would be better leaders of tomorrow.
Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is design to look into the influence of family factors on violent behavior among junior secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Ifo Local Government Area of Ogun State.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Due to limited time, space, materials resources, finance and transportation. The research work is going to be limited to selected Secondary Schools in Ifo local Government Area of Ogun State.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
- VIOLENT: It is an act that injures or irritates another person. It is any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
- VIOLENT BEHAVIOR: Violent behavior is a behavior directed towards causing harm to others. According to Wolman (2013), violent behavior is the acts of behavioral responses of an organism that display the quantity of violent.
- VIOLENCE: It is the tendency to display hostility by performing act of aggression. It is a behavioral trait characterized by hostile attack, usually upon someone or something else.
- FAMILY: Le Roux (2009) and Lehtinen (2010) distinguish two different kinds of families, a nuclear family and non-nuclear family. A nuclear family comprises of a wife, husband, and their children living together in their on residence. The husband and wife maintain their own home and regard themselves as more or less independent and self-sufficient unit (Havemann & Lehtinen, 2009).