MAKE PAYMENT TO GET FULL MATERIAL
I certify that this work was carried out under my supervision by NAME in the Department of Business Administration, School of Management and Business Studies, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
This project work is dedicated to the same yesterday, today and forever the Almighty God for his total grace made sufficient for me to successfully complete my Higher National Diploma in Business Administration.
My special and adorable Mummy Mrs. Oyekunle Bashirat and my charming Prince Oluwademiladeogo Inioluwanimi. God will make you a blessed child to your generation.
I will exol you Lord; for thou has lifted me, above my enemies, your banner over me is love. Halleluyah.
My gratitude appreciation is also directed to my caring and wonderful mother Mrs. Oyekunle Busirat who always look forward towards my achievement in life and for your physical Spiritual, Moral and Financially contribution on my academic, may you live long to reap the fruit of your Labour in Prosperity.
I also express my innermost gratitude to my Daddy Mr. Oyekunle Samuel and my lovely Uncle Mr. Oyekunle Clement for been there for me all the time. I pray you will not labour in vain. Thanks so much sir.
I comprehend the effort of my supervisor Mr. Oni Quasim for devoting his time and guiding me in all aspect of this project work in making sure that it result to success, may God give attention to all your request in Jesus name.
My appreciation goes to my husband who has been acting as mentor toward each step of my academic. I pray that your desire in life will be granted in Jesus Name.
Moreso, I appreciate all my family member for their advice and encouragement during this project Work, Mrs. Oyatayo T, Mrs. Sowemimo R, Meriam, Zainab, Rafiat, Rashidat, Iyabo, Fatimo, Basirat, Kaosara, Quadri, Folahan (son) Tunde and the baby of the house Queen Sofiati the Almighty God will make you to attain greater height.
To all my friends, Temitope, Mayowa, Esq Oduneye Azeez, Oyegoke Tunde, Opeyemi, Abiodun Anu, Ganiyat, Olaide, Bola, HOC and all my course-mate in HND Business Administration Year 2014/2015 May favour crown all your efforts in life.
Finally I say a big thank you to every soul that have contributed to my success.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.01 Background to the study
1.02 Statement of the problem
1.03 Purpose and objectives of the study
1.04 Research Questions
1.05 Research Hypotheses
1.06 Significance of the study
1.07 Scope and delimitation of the study
1.08 Definition of terms
2.01 Definition of training and exposure to training
2.01.1 Training needs assessment before staff exposure
2.01.2 Motivation for staff training exposure
2.01.3 Employee job satisfaction
2.01.3.1 Components structure of job satisfaction
2.02 Theoretical framework
2.02.1 The hard and soft approach
2.02.2 Social support theory
2.02.3 Self-made model/ theory
2.02.4 Balanced training theory
2.03 Empirical review
2.03.1 Supervisor/co-worker support and effect on exposure to training
2.03.2 Organizational support impact on exposure to training
2.03.3 Opportunity for career advancement and exposure to training
2.03.4 Exposure to training and job commitment
3.01 Research design
3.03 Population of the study
3.04 Sample size and sampling technique
3.05 Research instrument specification
3.06 Measurement of variables
3.07 Data presentation and method of analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.01 Presentation and interpretation of data
4.02 Test of hypotheses
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.01 Summary of findings
Employees in an organization perform best when they are well informed and trained on what to do. Therefore, exposure to training is a very essential ingredient on how satisfied employees are on their job. It is on this background that the study investigates the impact of employee exposure to training on job satisfaction among selected banks. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, relevant literatures were reviewed on the subject matter while their major contributions on the issue were presented under literature review. Thereafter, the study surveyed eighty (80) Staff of selected banks in Abeokuta through purposive sampling technique. Questionnaires would be administered on the respondents and responses would be presented in frequency table while the hypotheses would be tested through Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS). The study findings as shown in the literature review show that employees’ exposure to training is a veritable tool to enhancing employee job satisfaction. Therefore, regular and adequate exposure to training would boost workers job satisfaction.
Key words- Job satisfaction, Training, Employees, Organization.
1.01 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
For any enterprise to function effectively, it must have money, materials, supplies, equipment, ideas about the services or products to offer those who might use its outputs and finally people, which is the human resource, to run the enterprise (Malaolu& Ogbuabor, 2013). One major area of the Human Resource Management function of particular relevance to the effective use of human resources is training. Few people these days would argue against the importance of training as a major influence on the success of an organization. This is because employees are a crucial, but expensive resource. In order to sustain economic growth and effective performance, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organizations. The importance of training as a central role of management has long been recognized.
The one contribution a manager is uniquely expected to make is to give others vision and ability to perform. So, the main object of every organization is to improve its performance but it can never be possible without the efficient performance of employees. Therefore, employees perform better when they know what to do, how to do it well and are provided with convenient environment to do it (Sharif, 2002; Tahir, Yousafzai, Jan& Hashim, 2014). So, to enhance employees performance workers are trained on areas relevant to their job. This shows that training is not meant for every member of an organization but those whose area of operation requires updated knowledge to enhance their performance. In the process of being trained, employees express different views on the training they are exposed. While some may be satisfied others may not due to reasons best known to them. And this reaction-positive or negative to training often affects workers’ job satisfaction.
In short, training is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions. There is therefore a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfils an important part of this process. Training should be viewed therefore as an integral part of the process of total quality management. The recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized. They add that technological developments and organizational change have gradually led some employers to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their employees, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. Many organizations meet their needs for training in an ad hoc and haphazard way. Training in these organizations is more or less unplanned and unsystematic. Other organizations however set about identifying their training needs, then design and implement training activities in a rational manner, and finally assess results of training (Sultana, Irum, Ahmed & Mehmood, 2012).
In very short span, lots of changes occur in business environment with respect to network coverage, marketing strategies, technological requirements and intensifying competition, which resulted in increasing demand for well trained workforce. For a firm’s performance, beside innovativeness and competitiveness, the most vital ingredient is its workforce’s knowledge and skills. If an organization wants to remain competitive then it has to maintain continuous improvement and workplace education. Fast pace technological development and organizational change help employers to realize that success demands the enhancement of employee skills and abilities and it requires uninterrupted investment in training and development. Training is required by the employees to sufficiently execute a task or job, enhance job satisfaction and to improve performance in the job environment (Sultana, Irum, Ahmed & Mehmood, 2012).
Therefore, the study investigates the impact of staff training exposure on their job satisfaction.
1.02 Statement of the Problem
That well-designed training is impactful is important as continuous learning and skill development are now a way of life in modern organizations. To remain competitive, organizations must ensure that their workforce continually learns and develops. Training and development activities allow organizations to adapt, compete, excel, innovate, produce, be safe, improve service, and reach goals (Patel, 2010). Organizations invest in training because they believe a skilled workforce represents a competitive advantage. Therefore, decision about what to train, how to train, when and how to implement and evaluate training should be informed by the best information science has to offer. This is because training will be irrelevant when there is no need for it or it is unaffordable.
In spite of various organizations’ interventions and efforts; the Nigerian business sector’s score-card has remained poor in performance and efficiency. Considering the important role of training and development in bringing the Nigerian businesses to an enviable height by exposing employees to opportunities for career advancement and discovery of new business prospects, if those that are expected to execute policies of organizations and manage organizational affairs are therefore not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem of goals attainment. Obviously, the achievement of the objectives for which employees were employed might be affected (Obi-Anike & Ekwe, 2014). However, because of prospect for advancement, the manager may not want his junior staff to be exposed to training so as not to send him away from his job.
Where the human capital is not well planned by managers or supervisors, organizations will be confronted with the inability to deliver quality service, attract and retain competent people required to carry out organizational tasks and encounter difficulty in the development and training of highly talented personnel. This further explains the problem organization would encounter where supervisors fail to adequately train appropriate set of workers or give required support to those in need of training. One unique consequence of lack of supervisor support to workers in need of training is their inability to acquire new skills or high probability to be dissatisfied with the job that fails to invest in them. Thus morale is lowered and low commitment may result
Another critical challenge of exposure to training is determination of which kind of training is needed and for which set of people so that maximization of opportunities there from could be significant, cost effective and beneficial to organizations and the trainees. Training on the Job and some form of in-service training are examples of training to develop the knowledge or expertise, greater confidence and a higher degree of performance of workers (Obi-Anike & Ekwe, 2014).
In human resource management, one of the key tasks is how to determine how regular workers should be exposed to training and the category of workers that should be trained. It may look simple but most often, organizations do train their senior workers alone leaving the junior workers unattended to even when they do bulk of the organizational tasks. In fact, this has led to collapse of many industries because the operational staff who carry out major jobs that rake in sales are not taken serious as deserving training. Where this anomaly persists, it often leads low commitment to organizational tasks. Thus creating bad image and poor result for the managers that can hardly put to use what he was taught especially on how to convince customers for more patronage.
Thus, the study focuses on the impact of training and development on organizational effectiveness in Nigeria.
1.03 Purpose and Objectives of the Study
The purpose and objectives of the Study are:
- To determine the relationship between training exposure and job satisfaction;
- To determine the relationship between Supervisor/ Manager Support and exposure to training;
- To determine the relationship between career development opportunity and exposure to training;
- To determine the relationship between career development opportunity and job satisfaction;
- To examine relationship between exposure to training and workers’ job commitment.
1.04 Research Questions
In order to ensure there are adequate responses to the above objectives, the following questions were designed to help achieve the study objectives:
- What relationship exists between training exposure and job satisfaction?
- Is supervisor or manager support of any relationship with staff exposure to training?
- Does career development opportunity have any relationship with exposure to training?
- Is there any relationship between career development opportunity and job satisfaction?
- Does exposure to training have any relationship with workers’ job commitment?
1.05 Research Hypotheses
The research hypotheses are:
H1-Exposure to training has significant relationship with job satisfaction
H2-Manager/ Supervisor support has significant relationship with staff exposure to training
H3– Exposure to training has significant relationship with workers’ job commitment
1.06 Significance of the Study
Generally, every organization succeeds when it has quality human resource to see to it that the goals and objectives of the organization are effectively achieved. For any manager, irrespective of the size of the organization by which he is employed or its range of activities, a capable, loyal team of staff is of great importance if his organization is to operate smoothly and efficiently. No matter how automated the organization or part of it may be, the output of the organization would ultimately be achieved through the efforts of the people. This makes the human resource in an organization the most important and complex resource who must be handled with care and treated with the necessary care including adequate and regular exposure to training.
In contributing to the overall goal of the organization, training and development processes are implemented as this benefits not just the organization but also the individuals making up that organization. For the organization, training and development leads to improved profitability while cultivating more positive attitudes toward profit orientation. For the individuals, exposure to training and development improves job knowledge while also helping in identifying with the goals of the organization.
At its core is the improvement in the performance of individuals that participate in training and development activities. As such, performance contributes to the growth of the organization specifically since they can implement in combination competences and expertise acquired through training and development.
Exposure to training is therefore a key element for improved job satisfaction where it is properly harnessed; it increases the level of individual and organizational competences. It helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening – between desired targets or standards and actual levels of work performance.
1.07 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study is being carried out on organized private sector establishments in Ogun state to assess how exposure to training of their workers affects job satisfaction. This covers investigating how regular the organizations expose their workers to training as well as the impact it has on their job satisfaction.
1.08 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Training is the systematic attainment and expansion of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of a person.
Staff development, on the hand, implies growth and the acquisition of wide experience for future strategic advantage of the organization.
Exposure to training is the accessibility rate to training opportunities over a period by an individual or group of individuals.
Job Satisfaction is an interaction between an individual with his/her work and its environment. That is, it is an effective or emotional response to various aspects of the work
Learning can be defined as knowledge obtained by self-directed study, experience, or both; the art of acquiring knowledge, skills, competencies, attitudes, and ideas retained and used; or a change of behaviour through experience ( Maycunich 2000).
Malaolu, Victor A & Jonathan Emenike Ogbuabor (2013). Training and Manpower Development, Employee Productivity and Organizational Performance in Nigeria: an Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, Vol. 2 No. 13
Obi-Anike, Happiness Ozioma & Michael Chidiebere Ekwe(2014). Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Selected Public Sector Organizations in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management Vol.6, No.29,
Patel, L. (2010). ASTD State of the industry report 2010. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development.
Sultana, Afshan; Sobia Irum; Kamran Ahmed& Nasir Mehmood (2012). Impact of Training on Employee Performance: A Study of Telecommunication Sector In Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business Vol. 4, No 6
Tahir, Neelam; Israr Khan Yousafzai; Shahid Jan &Muhammad Hashim(2014). The Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and Productivity-A case study of United Bank Limited Peshawar City, KPK, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences April 2014, Vol. 4, No. 4