THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS TO POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COLLEGES IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA.

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ABSTRACT
This study focuses on the constraints to effective implementation of
educational policies in federal Government colleges in South East Nigeria.
Three research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated for the
study. A 37-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 28
principals and vice principals and 270 teachers in federal Government
colleges in South East Nigeria. The data collected were analyzed using
mean scores. T- test statistics was employed in testing nullhypotheses. This
study discovered multiple problems which constitute hindrances to effective
implementation of educational policies in federal Government Colleges in
South East Nigeria. These constraints include: incessant political changes,
bribery and corruptions, poor monitoring and supervision of schools, lack of
amenities, lack of continuity in commitment to policy, inadequate fund,
problem of record- keeping, lack of physical plant, inadequate personnel
and over-ambitious policy goals. Having identified the constraints,
recommendations were further made to help in solving the constraints. The
researcher recommended that government should provide adequate fund,
regular maintenance of school plant, federal government to provide
necessary facilities for adequate supervision and monitoring of schools,
provide materials and equipment in adequate quantity and in time, posting
of permanent teacher to schools, motivation of teachers among othershave
to be vigorously pursued and achieved if the objectives of educationa l
policies is to be ascertained.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Education is a process of acquiring skills, obtaining relevant
knowledge and aptitudes in order to survive in the society. (Adunola 2010).
One cannot achieve this without effective implementation of educational
policies. According to Egomwan (1991) “Policy is a programme of action”.
Policy is a set of inter-related decisions by a political actor or group of
actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of a achieving them
within a specific situation where those decisions would in principle be
within the powers of those actors to achieve (Jenkins 1971). This means that
decision makers are fully aware of the choice of goals and the means to
achieve them.
Educational policy refers to specific goals arrived at that must be
pursued through educational policies. (Ogbonnanya 2010). It can refer to a
proposal, an on-going programme, or the goals of a progamme, or major
decisions. Educational policy concerns the formulation of a decision, its
implementation and evaluation. Educational policies are National Policy
and Education and Universal Basic Education (UBE).
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This study is concerned with the policy implementation.
Implementation means carrying out an assigned task. The policy
implementation stage is the stage where the preparations made earlier, the
plans, the designs and analyses proposed are tested to see how really they
are. (Egonmwan, 1991) Policy implementation is said to be carrying out of
the policy formulated in concrete terms (Ogbonnanya 2010).
Implementation becomes possible when resources have been committed to
it. Policy implementation depends on some factors which according to
Barret and Fudge (1981) include knowing what you want to do and the
availability of the require resources.
implementation stage is the stage where the preparations made earlier, the
plans, the designs and analyses proposed are tested to see how really they
are. (Egonmwan, 1991) Policy implementation is said to be carrying out of
the policy formulated in concrete terms (Ogbonnanya 2010).
Implementation becomes possible when resources have been committed to
it. Policy implementation depends on some factors which according to
Barret and Fudge (1981) include knowing what you want to do and the
availability of the require resources.
Policy is made by the president, legislators, judges, interest groups
and special panels but executed by administrators Ogbonnanya, (2010). In
other words, policy is made somewhere else but executed by administrators
in the system. In educational policy, it is being implemented bythe school
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administrators (principals), vice and teachers. Administrator means an
individual who directs the affairs of an organization in such a way as to
achieve its primary goals and objectives and who can get things done
quickly and efficiently Ozigi (1982). This will involve effective planning,
organizing, supervising, controlling and evaluating major task of an
administrator is to determine how to serve the functions for which the group
is organized in the way in which the group is intended. The school
administrator has to establish his goals, co-ordinate, plan and implement the
school programme and policies and manage whatever resources are
available to him to ensure the success of the educational programme.
Therefore administration, according to Peretemode (1996) is concerned with
the performance of executive duties, the carrying out of policies and
decisions to fulfill a purpose and the controlling of the day-to-day running
of an organization. This means that administration involves implementation
of policies and programmes of an organization. Educational administration
is a services activity or tool through which the fundamental objectives of the
educational process may be more fully and efficiently realized. Aderounmi
and Ehiametator (1985).
The objectives of education is the enhancement of teaching and
learning process. The achievement of these objects if Federal Government
Colleges requires the effective implementation of educational polices. The
establishment of Federal Government College in Nigeria was traced back to
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1906 when the colony and protectorate of Southern Nigeria was created in
1906 and a new code of education covering Southern Nigerian was
introduced in 1908. Ukeje (1992). The following year 1909, the first
Government Secondary school, the Kings College, Lagos was founded by
an act of British Parliament. According to Ukeje (1992) it was founded to
prepare youth of the colony a higher general education than that supplied by
the existing schools to prepare them for matriculation of the university of
London and to give a useful course of study to those who intend to quality
for professional life or to enter government or mercantile service.
Ukeje (1992) stated that in the year 1927, government opened another
Federal Government College-Queens College Lagos, for girl. In 1929two
more government training College ere opened, one at Ibadan and the other
at Umuahia. They later developed into the present Government College
Ibadan and Federal Government College, Umuahia respectively. According
to FME (1991) after independence in 1960, Government decided to
establish three more Government Colleges one in the East, one in the West
and one in the North. The three unity schools founded in 1966 were sited in
Warri, Sokoto and Okposi respectively. The Federal Government College
Okposi was however moved to Enugu in 1973. According to Ogbonnanya
(2009), these unity schools were established as one of the many experiments
at National unity and National integration. It is expected that in these
schools, young adolescents. It is expected that in these schools, young
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adolescents drawn from all parts of the country would group uptogether,
interact together and develop a solid base for themselves in theformulation
of national, social and cultural values. The federal Government College are
organized, controlled and supervised by the Federal Ministry of Education.
Staff recruitment, postings, transfer and promotion is usually the
responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education. Ogbonnaya (2009). At
present there are 104 Federal Government College distributed all over 36
states of the federation Iwuala (2009).
Federal Government College principals are the chief Administrative
Executives of their respective schools. They are responsible for assignment
of responsibilities to vice principals, teachers and other personnel, initiating
and supervising the implementation of the curricular programmes of their
schools, management of physical facilities and equipment. Ozigi (1982)
stated that part of principals responsibilities are assigningduties and tasks
to staff, engaging in close supervision of teaching and non-teaching staff,
maintaining discipline among staff, contributing to the professional
development of their staff, Seeing that the programme of instruction is
directed at achieving educational goals and national objectives, making sure
that the school curriculum design and reform are initiated and implemented,
and Financial management. In all, the main responsibility of the school
principal is making sure that the educational polices are well implemented
in the school. The federal Government Colleges implement policesfrom the
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federal ministry of education. Such policies include Universal Basic
Education policy, and National Policy on Education.
In order to implement these policies successfully, principals of federal
government colleges have some roles to play, like Recruitment of PTA
(Parents Teachers Association) teachers. That is, the principals urge the
PTA to help in payment of some teachers that will be employed by the
school. This is to help reduce the scarcity of teachers in the school. They
also apply to NYSC (National Youth Service Corps) for posting of some
corp. members asteachers to their schools. They allocate periods to teachers
and use effective monitoring mechanism and internal supervision of
teachers to ensure that they teach according to syllabus. In adhering to the
curriculum, the principals go through the school diaries to ensure that they
are filled to help them assess the extent of the coverage per week. The
principals write to the Federal Ministry of Education to report on the
situation of things in their schools, by so doing, they request for fund that
will be used to improve the condition of the schools. Such funds include
fund for construction of some classrooms, Language laboratories, science
laboratories, equipping the school Libraries, buying of teaching aids and
materials and providing sufficient office accommodation for teaching staff.
They also raise money through inter house sports. Extension classes are
organized and strictly monitored test is organized twice in a term. This is to
ensure that teachers teach and test students at the same pace. They also
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organize internal and external examinations. Principals organize seminars
and conferences for teachers, teachers’ forum, academic forum and inservice training for the development of teachers. They encourage training of
academic staff and students in internet related educational programmes and
projects via internet service, training of the students, making use of the
facility for their class assignments, research work and ICT learning/teaching
methods of their school subjects. They again motivate their hardworking
teachers by using praises and rewards during the speech and prize giving
day. They use queries and verbal warning to teachers who do not care to do
their duties.
The step-B project about World Bank is being implemented by the
principals. In t0his step-B project is all about the World Bank through the
federal Ministry of Education assists the federal Government colleges by
providing laboratory equipments, materials and chemical, science text
books, white boards and school bus. (Nwosa 2009). The principals
implement it by appointing from their teachers the project directors,
technical managers, communication managers and key officials in their
schools to carry out the project. They also monitor them closely to see that
those things are being installed and used appropriately. This project if well
implemented will help their students compete effectively with their
counterparts globally in line with the millennium Development Goals
(MDGs’).
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Despite the efforts of these school administrators to implement the
educational polices effectively, they still encounter some administrate
constraints while implementing those educational policies. Administrative
constraints means those challenges encountered in the course of
administration, that poses hindrance or restriction to the smooth running of
the school system. Example inadequate personnel, lack of physical plant,
problem of record keeping, inadequate fund. The researcher is therefore
motivated to investigate the administrative constraints to policy
implementation in Federal Government College in South East Nigeria
because implementation is the greatest problem standing gallantly between
education polices and its realization. The problem of policy implementation
is enormous and the research has set out to explore these constraints. Some
of the constraints in policy implementation in Federal Government Colleges
in South East Nigeria the researcher discovered that made her to study this
topic are. Inadequate provision of fund by government, lack of physical
plant, problem of record keeping, government makes over ambitions policy
goals, inadequate personnel in some subjects, lack of continuity in
commitment to policy, and lack of electricity. Once the constraints are
unraveled, the proper steps towards salvaging the situations can be devised.
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Statement of the problem
School administration is indispensable since through it the National
Policy on Education and Universal Basic Education will be implemented.
Policy implementation depends on some factors which include knowing
what you want to do and the availability o f the required resources.
Implementation becomes possible when the resources have been mapped
out for the project. Having interacted with some school administrators and
teachers of Federal Government Colleges in south East Nigeria, it is clear
that their major challenge is the effective implementation of educational
polices in their schools. From the interaction, the researcher identifies
inadequate personnel, lack of physical plant, problem of record- keeping,
inadequate fund, lack of amenities, poor monitoring and supervision of
schools as part of the problems in implementing the educationalpolices.
The Federal Government has been budgeting and spending huge sums
of money for the enhancement of educational policies. But so far not much
have been accomplished in terms of successful implementation of the
educational policies. This is worrisome when the amount of human and
material resources so far committed to the policies is considered. This is
why the researcher is motivated to investigate the administrative constraints
to policy implementation in Federal Government Colleges in South Eastern
Nigeria.
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Purpose of Study
The Main purpose of this study is to investigate administrative constraints to
policy implementation in federal Government colleges in South Eastern
States of Nigeria. Specifically the study seeks to: :
1. Ascertain the problems hindering the effective implementation of
educational Policies in Federal Government colleges in the South
East.
2. Find out the perceived impact of the constraints on the administration
of federal government colleges in the South East.
3. Discover measures to be taken in solving the administrative
constraints to Policy implementation in federal Government College.
Significance of Study.
The theoretical significance hinges on the human relation theory, system
theory and behavioural science theory. The human relation theory
emphasized the need to motivate workers and achieve greater results if the
personal welfare is put into consideration. The system theory stressed the
need for school system linkage and that all the part of the system will be
carried along at the same time while the behavioural science theory
emphasized on administrators’ interacting with their teachers very well,
improving their working environment and at the same time monitor what
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they teach. This study will provide empirical information that would be of a
particular significance to researchers in educational policy implementation.
On the practical aspect, the findings of the study would be of benefit
to Ministry of education, principals, policy makers, teachers, student and
researchers. The results of this study will help the Ministry of Education to
ensure implementation of the policy before and to make a comprehensive
analysis of any policy before embarking on it. Ministry of Education too
would utilize the findings in organizing periodical workshops and seminars
for stakeholders to be properly educated on policy implementation.
The principals will benefit from this study. This is because with
effective implementation of educational policies, the principals can
effectively administer their duties to achieve educational goals at Federal
Government Colleges. The students will also benefit from this study. They
will enjoy quality teaching and learning, through adequate provision of
instructional materials and facilities.
Finally, it will serve as reference for researchers when ever they are
carrying out studies in related areas in educational policy. It will also
provide them with direction and guideline for their student.
Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the Federal Government Collegesin South
East Nigeria South East is one of the six geo political zones of Nigeria.
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South east zone is made up of five states, namely: Anambra, Abia, Enugu,
Ebonyi and Imo. The people of the zone are the Igbos. There are twelve (12)
Federal Government College in this zone.
The study will focus at:
– Factor hindering the effective implementation of educational polices
in Federal Government College in South East Nigeria.
– The perceived effect of the constraint on the administration of Federal
Government College in South East Nigeria.
– The measures to be taken in solving the administrative constraints to
policy implementation in Federal Government Colleges in South
East Nigeria.
The population of the study will comprises 12 principals 36 vice
principal and 887 teaching staff in the 12 Federal Government Colleges in
South East Nigeria(source: Federal Ministry of Education, Department of
secondary and primary school Education, Abuja. 2010) therefore only 7
Federal Government Colleges)
All in south East Nigeria will be visited and used as population of this study.
Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
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1. What are the problems hindering the effective implementation of
educational polices in federal Government Colleges in South Eastern
States
2. What are the perceived impact of the constraints on the
administration of federal government colleges in South Eastern
states?
3. What are the measures to be taken in solving the administrative
constraints to policy implementation in federal Government Colleges
in South Eastern States?
Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and will
be tested at 0.05 level of significance
1. There will be no significant difference between the mean ratings
(p<0.5) of principals and teachers regarding the problems hindering
the effective implementation of Educational Policies in Federal
Government Colleges in South East.
2. There will be no significant difference between the mean ratings
(P<0.05) of principals and teachers regarding the measures to be
taken in solving the constraints to policy implementation in federal
Government Colleges in South East

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