strategies for repositioning of secondary education

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CHAPTER ONE

                                       INTRODUCTION

  • Back ground to the Study

Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage .Secondary education is very crucial to the development of the nation.  Secondary education is meant to prepare the young adult for purposeful organization of oneself, for achieving maximally ones potentials to be able to withstand the complexities of living in the environment. It is also meant to prepare young adults for further training and education, which would lead to the acquisition of some specialized skills needed in different specific operations within the society

( Aderounmu & Ehiametalor, 2009).  Over  the  years,  there  is  a  rampant  cry  by  the  general  populace  in  the  country  on  the  issue  of  low standard  and  students’  achievement  more, especially  in  senior  secondary  schools.  The broad aims for secondary education are;   (a.)  preparing for useful  living  within  the  society,  and b. Preparation  for  higher  education ( National  Policy  on  Education,  2008:18)

It terms of adequate funding of secondary education in Kogi East Senatorial District . There have been tremendous  increase  in  establishment  of  senior  secondary  schools  and enrolment  of  students  as  well.  This  increase  has  necessitated  a  greater  need  for  adequate  funding  of  schools  for the  provision  and  maintenance  of  school  facilities.  Unfortunately  most  of  the  senior  secondary  schools  in  Kogi state  are  poorly  funded,  this  makes  it  impossible  for  senior  secondary  schools  to  realize  the  aims for  which  they  have  been  established.  Taiwo  (2000)  notes  that  the  physical  environment  in  most  senior secondary  schools  in  African  countries  is  literacy  aggressive  due  to  poor  funding  and  maintenance  of  school facilities.  However,  Nigerian  secondary  schools  have  undergone  tremendous  changes  since  independence  in 1960.  These  include  changes  in  the number  of  institutional  programme  due  to  the  general  changes  of  the  entire education  system  from  7-3-4,  7-3-5,  6-3-3-4  and  now  9-3-4  system.   Aremu  (2006)  stated  that,  the  gross  funding  of  education  in  Nigeria  led  to  deterioration  in  institutional facilities  and  service.

In terms of provision of facilities by government  Otu  (2002)  notes  that,  it  is  very  common  to  see  secondary  school  classroom  with  broken windows  and  doors,  collapsed  ceiling,  damaged  roofs,  cracked  walls,  broken  furniture,  non-functional equipments  and  damaged  infrastructure  Teaching  and  learning  could  be  effective  when  there  is  good  climate  and  conducive  atmosphere  in school.  However,  the  decline  in  educational  achievement  may  not  be  limited  to  the  shortcoming  on  the  side  of students  and  teachers  alone.,but due to inadequate infrastructural facilities   which may have influence on academic performance of the students. Strategies for reposition education means all efforts by all stakeholders of education both private and public targeted at improving all the sectors of education in all ramifications which to a great extent includes adequate  government funding  adequate infrastructural facilities, teacher in-service training,.curriculum innovation and school supervision and inspection

In-service  training  refers  to  encouraging  teachers  to  enhance  their  pedagogical  skills  and knowledge  of  the  subject  matter  through  advanced  academic  studies (Nwachukwu, 2006).  It  then  behooves  on education  managers  in  conjunction  with  the  government  to  provide  funding  for  conferences, workshops,  seminars  and  developing  other  training  opportunities.  In  Nigeria,  most  of  the leading  school  reforms  as  experienced  in  recent  political  administration  have  called  for  new reforms  of  professional  teachers’  development.  Perhaps,  it  was  in  line  with  this  that  Kogi State  Ministry  of  Education  mandated  all  those  teaching  in  its  schools  without  the requisite  qualification  to  acquire  professional  teaching  qualifications  and  the  response  has been tremendous (Otu , 2002).

Nwachukwu (2006)  suggestes that  for  a  teacher  to  improve  his  productivity,  he  must  possess  a  natural ability  and  the  will-power  to  be  involved  in  productive  ventures.  Nwachukwu   believes  that,  acquisition of  skills,  compensation,  supervision,  evaluation  and  managerial  support  must  be  present  to encourage  job  performance of  school  teachers.  Additionally,  prompt  application  of  personnel management technique,  has an important and influential bearing  on productivity.

The  place  of  supervision and inspection  as  a  vital  managerial  tool  need  not  be  undermined  in  any organizational  setting.  In  school  system  where  better  teachers  performance  remains  the watchword,  educational  supervision  involves  guiding  and  coordinating  the  works  of  teachers such  that learning  is facilitated. According  to  Peretomode  (2002)  supervision  is  that  phase  of  school  management  which focuses  primarily  upon  the  achievement  of  the  appropriate  expectation  of  educational  system. It  is  an  indispensable  function  of  the  school  managers.  Oleforo  (2014)  views  educational supervision  as  effort  of  all  designated  school  officials  toward  providing  leadership  to  the teaching  workforce  and  other  educational  workers  in  the  improvement  of  instructions.  She submitted  that  supervision  deals  with  having  a  comprehensive  view  of  the  activities  and problems  of  the  institutions  and  the  assessment  of  the  extent  to  which  the  school  is  fulfilling its  basic  objectives.  To  this  end,  supervision  therefore  means  an  activity  or  exercise  in  which a  professional  or  a  group  of  professional  superiors  help  in  facilitating  learning  by  improving teaching  and  learning  environments  in  schools  through  guiding,  advising  and  interest stimulation of  both the  students and teachers (Nkang, 2002).

In terms of curriculum innovation, globalization has  made  the  whole  world  to  be  looked  at as  a  single  community.  The  internet,  satellite  television, cellular  telephones  and  other  advancements  in  telecommunications, air  travels,  containerized  shipments, and  online  business  transactions  and  so on  have  really helped  to  make  the  world  a  global  village  and  a  fast changing  place.  Globalization  is  also  gradually  breaking down  educational  barriers,  although  local  or  national differences  still  remains. If  curriculum  is  a  process  of  preparing  children  for  a living  in  their  own  societies  and  for  competition  in the  global  economy  of  tomorrow   ( Aderounmu & Ehiametalor 2009) Then  it  is  only  logical  that  secondary  school  curriculum,  both  formal  and  informal,  contents  and  processes should  be  dynamic  enough   to   adapt    to    the    new    socio-   economic,  political,  scientific  and  technological  realities  of the times ( Aderounmu & Ehiametalor ,2009).

Secondary  school  management  could  be  defined  as  the  systematic  arrangement  of  human and  materials resources including  activities  designed  to achieve educational  goals at the secondary  level of  education (Oyewole ,2006).To Akinnubi (2010,P:2 )  management it is “getting  things  done  through  others”.  It  can  be  more  scientifically  defined  as  the co-ordination  of  all  the  resources  of  an  organization  through  the  process  of  planning,  organizing,  directing,  and controlling  in  order  to  attain  organizational  objectives. To the researcher the strategies for repositioning secondary education are various measures put in place for the purpose of quality school administration

Against this background the researcher is investigating the influence of the strategies for repositioning management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District. The study will cover the influence of curriculum innovation, teacher in-service training, school supervision and inspection, adequate government funding and school adequate infrastructural facilities on management of secondary schools the study will also cover all the secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District.

  • Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian education system has been facing complex problems and various governments have initiated programs of reforms that have achieved less than attaining the desired goals, thus crippling the system instead of enhancing it. These reforms have been inconsistent, mismanaged and mostly ineffective. The implementation of the National Policy on Education is a typical example of such attempts. Lack or insufficient provision of learning resources and poor management of resources by government and school administrators seem to be responsible for the failure.

.           Considering  the  increase  in  students  enrolment  in  senior  secondary  schools,  that makes  it  a  necessity  for  the  state  government  to  provide  adequate  fund  for  the  provision  and  maintenance  of school  facilities.   In  view  of  the  significance  attached  to  funding  for  the  provision  and  maintenance  of  school  facilities for  the  attainment  of  educational  aims  and  objectives, It  is  noted  that,  education  is  an  expensive  service  that  requires  adequate  funding  from  all  three  tier  of government  for  a  successful  implementation  of  educational  programme.  Inadequate  funding  of  education  has been  a  fundamental  problem  facing  educational  sector  in  Nigerian     Kogi  state inclusive.   Adamu  (2011),  Bako  (2011)  and  Okeem  (2002)  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  level  of  funding  of educational  system  has  never  been  adequate  in  Nigeria  considering  the  UNESCO  recommendations  of  26% National  Domestic  Product  (NDP)  to  education.  .

However,  schools  cannot  survive  without  adequate  provision  and  maintenance  of  its  facilities. These school facilities refer to those fixed and movable materials.  They  are  materials  that  facilitate  teaching  and learning  process,  these  include  classrooms,  libraries,  workshops,  laboratories,  assembly  halls  and  teaching  aids such  as  films  and  transparencies. Peremotode  (2001)  points  out  that,  it  is  unfortunate  that  most  school buildings  especially  the  public  school  building  set  up  by  the  communities  in  the  decade  of  the  1980’s  were  just set  up  as  building  house  for  students  without  regard  to  adequate  provision  of  fund  for their  maintenance  .

Often  time  most  teachers  are  seen  hawking  wares  during  official  school  hours,  some  absent themselves  from  classes  to  the  detriment  of  their  students  while  some  refuse  to  write  their notes  of  lesson  as  well  as  carrying  out  other  assigned  responsibilities.  These  are  testimonies of  the  alarming  rise  of  poor  attitude  to  work  which  leads  to  poor  job  performance.  These problems  are  evidence  of  poor  or  absence  of  adequate  supervision  as  well  as  compensation and in-service  training  exercise in the  school system  by  the school managers.

Our  secondary  school  curriculum  appears  to have  been  overloaded  as  it  now  stands , because  of  the number  of  subjects  each  student  offer,  there  is  the  need to  infuse  global  issues  into  the  curriculum.  This  may  imply the  elimination  of  certain  curriculum  requirements, increasing  the  scope  and  depth  of  certain  subjects  and adoption  of  new  programmes.  Therefore the problem of the study is what is the influence of strategies for repositioning education on the management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial Districts.

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of strategies for repositioning education on management of secondary schools In Kogi East Senatorial Districts. Specifically the study is seeks to:

  1. ascertain influence of adequate government funding on management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District
  2. find out the influence of adequate school infrastructural facilities on management of secondary schools .
  3. investigate the influence of teacher in-service training on the management of secondary schools.
  4. determine the influence of curriculum innovation on management of secondary schools
  5. assess the influence of adequate school supervision and inspection on

management of secondary schools .

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions below are formulated to guide the study

  1. How does adequate government funding influence the management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District ?
  2. How do adequate school infrastructural facilities influence the management of secondary schools?
  3. What is the influence of teacher in-service training on the management of secondary schools?
  4. How does curriculum innovation influence management of secondary schools?
  5. What is the influence of adequate school supervision and inspection on management of secondary schools?

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1.5  Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are formulated to be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. Adequate government funding has no significant influence on management of secondary schools.
  2. Adequate school infrastructural facilities have no significant influence on management of secondary schools.
  3. Teacher in-service training has no significant influence on the management        of secondary schools.
  4. Curriculum innovation has no significant influence on management of secondary schools.
  5. Adequate school supervision and inspection has no significant influence on   management of secondary schools?

1.6  Significance of the Study

The study might be of benefit to principals, school proprietors student’s teachers, parents, school administrators and curriculum planners other stake holders.

The results of this study might help principals to select and use the appropriate strategies in order to reposition the management of their school as the situation demands. It will also enable the principals to understand how to manage people in such a way that will ensure their cooperation and in the end achieve better administration of the secondary schools.

The findings of this research might enable the proprietors of schools to be exposed to a variety of strategies in repositioning secondary schools in their domain which could result to better management of their schools.

The findings of this study will also be of benefit to government to sponsor school principals on leadership courses to enable them learn good leadership skills and other strategies to better the management of schools.

Students will benefit from the research because once the recommendations are adhered to, the school system will be more organize and learning will be fun.

Teachers will also benefit in the sense that there will be conducive environment to teach and the might also benefit from in-service training once the recommendations are adhered to.

The research will also be of help to other researchers for further research on related studies because it is the contribution of the researcher to the growth of knowledge in this area of study.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is limited to the influence of strategies for repositioning  education on management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial Zone..The variable that will be studied includes influence of curriculum innovation, teacher in-service training, school supervision and inspection, adequate government funding and school adequate infrastructural facilities .The study will cover all the secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District.

 

 

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following words are operationally defined as :

Curriculum innovation: Is a deliberate action to improve a learning environment by adapting a method of presenting material to students that involves human interaction, hands-on activities and student feedback.

Influence:The power to change the cause of things in relation to management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District .

Strategies for Repositioning Education: A plan that is intended to achieve good management of secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District. This includes

curriculum innovation, teacher in-service training, school supervision and inspection, adequate government funding and school adequate infrastructural facilities.

 Management: Management in organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives by using available resources efficiently and effectively in secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District .

Teachers in -service. training: Improving teacher performers through seminars or  workshops and other remedial instructions efficiently and effectively in secondary schools in Kogi East Senatorial District.

 School inspection and supervision: Critical appraisal involving examination, measurement, testing, gauging, and comparison of materials or items. An inspection determines if the material or item is in proper quantity and condition, and if it conforms to the applicable or specified requirements.

Government Adequate funding; A situation whereby government allocate enough money which facilitate the activities of secondary schools in the country

Adequate infrastructural facilities: This occurs when the infrastructural facilities are enough and sufficient to go round

Kogi East: This consist mainly of the Igala speaking people of Kogi state and Bassa it is made up of eight local governments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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