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SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AWARENESS OF THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS FOR TEACHING IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA
DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC STUDIES
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA
- Background to the Study
Education is not only limited to teaching and learning according to prescribed syllabus at a specific school level but it has much extended meanings objectives goals and concepts. Thus education has been seeing as a vital tool for national development, and one of the basic building blocks of modern society (Daniels, 2002). Education is a process by which an individual is enabled to develop his capabilities through the acquisition enables to develop his capabilities through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes both for his own benefit and for the benefit of society. It is one of the most important investments a country can make for people and future (Global Partnership for Education, 2015).
The field of education has been affected by Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning and research (Yusuf, 2005). ICT is perceived as a fundamental pre-requisite for national survival and development within the context of a rapidly changing world (Mac-Ikemenjima, 2005). Nigerias as a developing country which must participate effectively and ensure a key position in the emerging information age, requires an effective and efficient ICT system for the development of education sector in general and secondary education in particular as in National policy ICT that mandated the diffusion of ICTs in all levels of education in the country (Achimugu, Oluwagbemi & Oluwaranti, 2010).
There has been an exponential growth in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has made great impact on society and in our daily lives. It is not surprising to find increasing interest, attention and investment put into the use of ICT in the education world. ICT may be viewed in different ways; it is the way of accessing, receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending information or perception, ideas, through computer and other communication facilities (Fabunmi, 2012). Margaret (2014) described ICT as all the technology used to handle telecommunications, broadcast media, intelligent building management systems audiovisual processing and transmission systems, and network based control and monitoring functions.
The uses of ICT in schools come from the common belief that technologies would make education, scientific, understandable, efficient, effective and interesting. Despite the expansion of ICT, the body of empirical research investigating the level of ICT use of educational purpose is still relatively small, the use of technology in education and in Islamic studies education in particular remains on emerging field of study, largely because technological advances introduce new instructional possibilities (Murray, 2007).
A great deal of research has proven the benefit of ICT to the quality of education (Al-Ansari, 2006). Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concept of ICT as part of the care of education alongside reading, writing and numeracy. A likert-type scale was constructed by International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence (IJDLDC, 2012) to investigate the Variables and other factors related to the use of ICT in the classroom. Result indicated that although teachers were aware of the benefits of ICT to promote student learning, they do not integrate ICT as a learning tools in their regular, everyday teaching practices. Primary factors determining the use of ICT in classroom practice relate to facilitating conditions with a controlled access in the schools, teachers awareness experience and or knowledge. On the other hand, perceived usefulness of ICT, perceive ease of use, compatibility and normative beliefs seem to have minor impact on teachers’ actual usage of ICT in classroom settings (IJDLDC, 2012)
The result of research carried out by Ajayi & Ekundayo, (2009) on “the application of ICT in Nigeria secondary schools” showed that ICT facilities like computers, radio(tape recorders), television sets, video disc players, bullet boards were available in schools, while some facilities like projectors, electronic notice boards, internets, filmstrips are scantly available in schools. There were effort being made by the stakeholders in education sector to ensure that ICT facilities are available and used in Nigeria secondary schools, the level of uptake is still low (Adomi, 2010)
Other findings included that the typical African school environment provides neither opportunity nor training in using ICT, and that a good percentage of responding teachers have no or very limited awareness and expertise regarding ICT educational applications. (Okwudishu, 2010) discovered that the unavailability of some ICT component in schools hampers teachers use of ICT. Yusuf (2012) on teachers’ awareness opined that teachers in Nigeria Secondary School are not competent in basic computer operation and in the use of genetic software, although they have positive attitude towards the use of computer. This finding revealed the low level of ICT penetration in the Nigeria school system. This reveals the state of ICT in most of the Nigerian secondary schools. Hence the need to examine the awareness of Secondary School Teachers in the use of ICT tools for teaching in Abeokuta Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The last few decades have witnessed a dramatic rise of technologies within the field of education and it was known by terms such as teaching or instructional aids. Teaching and instructional aids include the use of slide projector, television, radio, audio, and video cassettes and so on. In teaching and learning situations (International Education Studies, 2010).
The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning and research (Yusuf, 2005). ICTs have been potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills to motivate and engage students, to help, to relate school experience, to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers as well as strengthen teaching and help school’s change. Many development countries like Nigeria are still low in the utilization and application of ICTs. And more importantly, the use of ICT tools among secondary school teachers in teaching islamic studies in Abeokuta is not popular which makes the subject not only to lose students interest but also to be seen as unprogressive subject that does not go along with the changing technological development. Most teachers are yet to acquire the requisite ICT skills and where opportunity exists for them to do so; they shun them because of the phobia they developed over the ICT. The NUC Executive secretary so declared that most university teachers are also incompetent (Okogie, 2008) one may add that incompetent university teachers can only produce incompetent graduates (Bassey, Akuegwu & Udida, 2009). Teachers can only pass on skills and ideas to their students if they themselves are masters of their trade (Bamiro & Liverpool, 2002). The quality of lecturers instructional service delivery cannot be divorced from the use of ICT in secondary schools, which Aginam, (2006) put at less than five percent. According to him, most Nigerian school have little or no infrastructure for cyber centers, computer equipped classroom or high speed internet and do not even have the funds to implement such infrastructures on their own.
The absence of ICT equipment in most Nigerian secondary school leads teachers and students to resort to cybercafés for internet access. (Fakey, 2010). Research confirms that ICT tools and application are not well established in Nigeria because of poor information infrastructure however, the available facilities were not being adequately accessed by teachers (Adom & Aginam, 2006 Okwudishu, (2010) discovered that unavailability of some ICT tools in the schools hampered teachers awareness and use of ICT.
It is now obvious that most teachers of Islamic Studies are less aware of the use of ICT tools in teaching some basic concept such as Quranic verses, Hadith, Tarikh, Fiqh e.t.c which has greatly affected students’ academic performance in West African Senior School Certificate Examinations (WASSCE). WAEC Chief Examiners Report (2007) noted that candidates’ weakness is their inability to write Quranic and Hadith quotations in correct transliteration as expected of those who cannot write in Arabic. Many candidates were ill-prepared for the examination. Their answers were too superficial and contained a lot of irrelevances. Teachers should therefore endeavor the use of Information and Communication Technology tools in teaching some concepts in Islamic Studies. For instance Salat, wudu and Tawaf. This will enhance better understanding of the topics.
Request for the use of ICT by secondary school teacher is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in curriculum implementation. Okoro, (2008) indicated that there is dearth of trained teachers for e-learning and inadequate facilities in institutions of learning. Despite huge investment on ICT infrastructure, equipment and professional development to improve education in many countries. Jegede, (2009) claimed that this huge educational investment has produced little evidence of ICT facilities might not have been optimally utilized by teachers to pass educational knowledge to learners in secondary school as it is applicable to the locale of this study.
It is therefore against the afore-stated problems that the researcher intends to examine the secondary school teachers’ awareness of the use of information and communication technology tools for teaching Islamic Studies in Abeokuta metropolis.
- Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine secondary school teacher’s awareness of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools for teaching in Abeokuta Metropolis. Specifically the study will.
- identify the ict tools available in secondary schools in abeokuta.
- determine the awareness of secondary school teachers in the use of ICT tools for teaching in Abeokuta.
- determine the rate at which teachers of Islamic studies use the available ICT facilities.
- examine the effectiveness of the ICT usage in teaching and learning.
- Research Questions
In this study, answers will be sought for the following research questions:
- Are there ICT facilities in secondary schools in Abeokuta
- What is the influence of secondary school teacher’s qualifications on their awareness of the use of ICT to teach Islamic Studies?
- Do teachers in secondary Schools possess the required experience and competence in the use ICT facilities?
- How often do teachers use ICT tools in teaching
- Does gender affect the teacher’s awareness of ICT tools?
- What is the effectiveness of ICT tools on the student’s interest in learning?
- Research Hypotheses
Based on the research questions stated, the following null hypotheses will be tested.
HO1: There is no significant difference in the secondary school teachers’ qualifications on their awareness of the use of ICT tools in teaching.
HO2: There is no significance difference in the awareness of secondary school teachers in the use of ICT based on gender.
HO3: There is no significance difference in the awareness of secondary school teachers’ in the use of ICT based on experience.
- Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized because of the fact that the inventions in the field of ICT have become an essential element in every aspect of human society in today’s globalised world, its contribution in enhancement of the teaching – learning process to individuals, groups, society and to educational institutions have been overwhelming. It is believed that the integration of ICT in the teaching of Islamic studies would greatly increase the Islamic understanding of the people and thereby improves Godliness, spirituality, morality and good citizenship.
There is no doubt in the fact that this study will benefit the teachers, parents, students, policy makers i.e. the government, school administrators, professional bodies, text-book writers and researchers. As for the teachers, the study will create more awareness for them towards the use of ICT facilities for teaching methods and materials in this computer age. The parents through this study will appreciate the usefulness of ICT to their wards and thereby creating an acquisition of ICT knowledge for their educational improvement.
It would also assist the students in showing positive attitudes towards their learning especially Islamic studies.
It could also give the policy makers a direction to appreciate the more the essence of ICT usage in education, thereby play its positive role in ensuring that ICT policy statements are translated into reality.
The school administrators would also find this study relevant by making sure that ICT facilities are made readily available in secondary schools.
It enables the professional bodies such as Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), Academic Staff Union of Secondary School (ASSUS), National Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS) to equip and update their members in the area of current ICT knowledge and awareness. It will also assist the textbook writers to know the areas of need, and then fill the gaps.
Finally, the researcher would be an additional stock of research at improving standard of education and as a reference point for further research in making and sustaining the use of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary school.
- Scope and Limitations of the Study
The content scope of this study is to assess the secondary school teachers awareness in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in teaching Islamic studies in Abeokuta metropolis. The geographical scope of the study would cover only Secondary Schools where Islamic Studies is being taught only Islamic Studies Teachers would constitute the study population because they are directly involved in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and are in a better position to answer research questions on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
The study will restricted to some selected secondary school teachers in Abeokuta metropolis and focuses on the influence of the independent variables. The school would identity the specific media and application software used in teaching Islamic studies. Even the study is aimed at determining the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching Islamic Studies. The study would as well focus on the extent of adoption and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching Islamic Studies.
The research would focus on twenty randomly selected secondary schools in Abeokuta metropolis. Questionaire would be given to four teachers each in twenty randomly selected secondary schools.
- Definition of the Terms
For the purpose of the clarity in this study, the terms and variables that will be operationally used in the course of this study are defined as follow:
Awareness: having required knowledge and competency by teachers in the use of ICT tools in teaching
Information and Communication Technology (ICT): An umbrella term that includes any communication device on application in teaching and learning.
Secondary School: Post primary school within Abeokuta where Islamic Studies is being taught.
Teachers: Persons with academic and pedagogical training and teaching in secondary schools.
Use: Handling of the ICT tools to teach Islamic Studies
Competence: the skills possessed to manipulate and use ICT tools to teach.