Leadership Styles and Their Impact on Church Growth in Alexandria and Springfield, Virginia

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Description

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study

Leadership consists of characteristics such as intellect, fluency, confidence, emotional intelligence, stature, vigor, and cordiality (Northouse, 2013). These characteristics are ways leaders influence their subordinates or followers by paying attention and appreciating their opinions, actions, and thoughts and supporting them to work effectively on their given objectives (Northouse, 2013). These characteristics are some of the most vital factors that can assist leaders in encouraging and influences individuals to achieve a common purpose in the organization (Northouse, 2013). Church leaders’ duties include preaching, teaching, guiding the church congregation, and managing and directing events of the church (Franck & Iannaccone, 2014). The focus of this qualitative case study was to explore the perceptions of church leaders’ and members of congregations regarding leadership styles and how the implementation of these styles influences the growth of church membership in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State.

 

The results of this study will enlighten leaders of Pentecostal churches about how their leadership practices help build their organizations efficiently and enable their members to create a positive impact that will change their communities and cities. Chapter 1 includes the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, research questions, conceptual framework, nature of the study, definitions, assumptions, and limitations of the study. Finally, this chapter offers a description of the method of data collection procedure and process from leaders, deacons, and ministers within the Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State.

Background of the Study

The growth of a church as a nonprofit organization depends considerably on its leadership. The leader is a proponent of change who has to customize management styles conforming to the attributes and conduct of his/her followers (Băeşu & Bejinaru, 2013). Many components impact a leader’s style as observed from the management stance (Băeşu & Bejinaru, 2013). The leader of the church makes decisions, communicates with stakeholders, and deals with the process of change. The positive impact of the church leaders on the growth of churches has not recently been evident in churches in the United States because churches have experienced a decline in membership and a resulting closing of many churches (Rainer, 2013). Data on church attendance indicated an unequal distribution of opinion among adults on the significance of going to church; 49% assumed it is somewhat or very significant, and 51% assumed it is not at all significant (Barna Group, 2014). These data reflected a stark disagreement between the people who are faithfully active and people who are resistant to attending church; this discrepancy has affected American culture, morality, politics, and religion (Barna Group, 2014).

 

This study was an exploration of the different leadership styles, transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant of pastors, deacons, ministers, and members of the congregation of Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, and the influence of those styles on church membership growth. An investigation of these leadership styles may present church leaders with the knowledge to formulate policies for effective leadership and membership growth in the church.

 

 

3 Although churches may be described using several different metaphors or models

 

from a theological perspective, in basic terms, a church is just like any other nonprofit organization in that it is a group of people who come together to work toward a common, specific purpose (Banks, 2013). An organization’s structure consists of components such as vision, mission, values, goals, and beliefs, which provide understanding and purpose to its existence (Banks, 2013). In other words, all types of organizations possess these elements, and all leaders impact these components through the inevitable process of change for an organization

 

Continual growth is an important factor in shaping the future of a church, and the role of the church leaders is also significant. Church leaders must design organizational and leadership structures of church groups with the purpose of facilitating growth, change, and production for the church (Banks, 2013). In recent years, churches have experienced a decrease in membership and attendance, and 59% of churches in the United States have fewer than 100 members and supporters (White, 2015). To remedy this decline, church leaders may need to change their leadership style and methods to reach the people of the church and community. Leadership structure varies among churches, and no standard or static form of leadership exists. Implementation of a leadership style or form depends upon the situation or needs of the church (Banks, 2013). Leadership types or styles for a church may change based on its needs, and leaders must address the needs of the future church by considering trends and change so that the church may continually grow and expand (Banks, 2013).

Problem Statement

The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore church leaders’ perceptions of their leadership styles and examine how the implementation of these styles influences the growth of church membership. The aim of this study was to help leaders understand their leadership practices, build their organizations efficiently, and enable their members to create a positive impact that will change their communities and cities. In the past two decades, church attendance has declined in Christian churches in the United States (Bruce, 2011; Coleman, Ivani-Chalian, & Robinson, 2004). Several factors, including a lack of leadership, vision, and communication and an inability to reach millennials contributed to this decline (Barna Group, 2014; Rainer, 2013).

 

Also, church attendance by individuals with religious connections continues to decline in these technological times. Fewer and fewer Americans attend a church or any house of worship (Yates, 2014). Advances in technology such as computers, mobile devices, and the Internet, are creating significant changes in the social lives of Christians and the ways they worship (Yates, 2014). Pervasive reliance on these devices is eliminating the individual need for traditional religion and attendance at traditional houses of worship (Yates, 2014).

 

Between 2004 and 2014, the percentage of Americans who regularly attended church decreased from 43% to 36% (Barna Group, 2014). Among churches in the United States, 50% averaged under 100 individual worshipers, 40% averaged between 100 and 350 worshippers, and 10% averaged more than 350 worshippers. The smallest category included growing churches with the largest memberships, while the lower 90% included.

the declining churches with smaller numbers of members (Rainer, 2015). In any church, the leader is the change agent, and readiness for change is more likely to occur in organizations with leaders who employees/members trust and respect (Allen, Smith, & Da Silva, 2013). The leadership style represents the views of subordinates regarding the leadership traits of a single individual (Allen et al., 2013).

 

The general problem was that even with tens of millions of Americans attending churches every weekend, church worship practices have declined in recent years (Barna Group, 2014). According to Allen et al. (2013), the problem may be an indication that church leaders are not ready to accept or adjust to change. The specific problem was that church leaders, such as pastors, deacons, and ministers, lack the understanding of the different leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant) and how their implementation can promote the growth of church membership in Abeokuta, Ogun State.

 

In trying to control the problem of decreasing membership in churches, the present leaders must be ready to promote and accommodate change (Allen et al., 2013). Given the challenges that churches are currently facing, creative problem solving and change efforts by leaders may be vital for organizational longevity (Allen et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to fill a gap in the literature regarding the connection between development and efficacy, organizations and outcomes, and church leaders and church membership growth (McCleskey, 2014).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore four leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant) of church leaders (pastors, deacons, and ministers) and the influence of these styles on the growth of church membership in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. The qualitative approach offered an all-inclusive structure for a comprehensive exploration of complex issues related to human behavior, human perception, and lived experience (Khan, 2014; Schwandt, 2015). Also, the central aim of this study was to contribute to the body of scholarly knowledge on the leadership styles of church leaders and the extent to which they influence membership growth. The findings of this study can be used in churches to strengthen the leadership styles of leaders and members and to expand knowledge and understanding of leaders in the church. A single interview protocol for semistructured, face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from church leaders.

Research Questions

The overarching research question for this case study was What are church leaders’ perceptions of their leadership styles, and how does the implementation of these styles influence the growth of church membership in Pentecostal churches in Alexandria, and Springfield, Virginia? Two subquestions provided a focus for this inquiry:

 

RQ1. What are the leadership styles commonly employed by church leaders to increase membership growth in Pentecostal churches in Alexandria, and Springfield, Virginia?

7 RQ2. What is the church leaders’ (pastors, deacons, and ministers) knowledge and

understanding of the implementation of the leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant) to increase membership growth in Pentecostal churches in Alexandria, and Springfield, Virginia?

Conceptual Framework

 

The central phenomenon of this study was to contribute to the body of scholarly knowledge of the leadership styles of church leaders and determine the extent to which these styles influence membership growth. The problem of the decline of church membership and its connection to church leadership styles was the focus of this qualitative case study. The conceptual framework of this study was the full-range leadership theory by Bass (1996) and Greenleaf’s (1970) servant leadership theory. The full-range leadership theory (Bass, 1996) places leaders at the heart of the group process and argues that their efforts influence followers (Oberfield, 2014).

 

The full-range leadership theory has been embraced by scholars and practitioners across a range of disciplines and organizations and has achieved a level of public acclaim that is rare for academic concepts (Oberfield, 2014). The full range leadership theory (Bass, 1996) derived from the concepts of the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. Transformational leaders influence their members to transcend their self-interests for the benefit of the organization (McCleskey, 2014). Transactional leaders focus on the roles of supervision, organization, and group performance (Cherry, 2016). Laissez-faire leaders avoid responsibility, delay decision making, and provide no feedback to church members (Allen et al., 2013).

The full-range model presumes followers accomplish well in a transactional connection with the leaders, although compensation alone is not sufficient in all circumstances. Thus, it is essential for the leader to exhibit transformational leadership behaviors to motivate great success, inspiration, and dedication among followers (Antonakis & House, 2014). The full range of leadership theory, therefore, includes elements of transformational leadership theory, the transactional leadership theory, and the laissez-faire leadership theory (Luo, Wang, Marnburg, & Øgaard, 2016). The full-range leadership theory served as a theoretical foundation to guide this study in exploring the broader leadership approach.

 

Greenleaf (1970) defined servant leadership not only as a management technique but also as a way of life that begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve and to serve first. The central idea in Greenleaf’s (1970) theory was that leaders should serve with flair, kindness, and bravery, and followers would answer to capable servants as leaders. Thus, the idea of the servant as a follower was as important as the servant as leader. Individuals may encounter these two roles at a certain time, stressing the desire for discernment and determination, two significant features of the servant as leader or follower (Greenleaf, 1977)

Together, Bass’s and Greenleaf’s theories provided basic explanations of the roles of leaders in a nonprofit organization such as a church. In the context of organizational change, these theories offered insight into the assessment and analysis of leadership styles and their influences on growth in an organizational setting. Leaders use variations of transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant leadership styles in their

various churches. These leadership styles will lead to various decision-making procedures for resolving individual and group problems.

 

Therefore, these theories also provided a foundation for this study; the participants were able to answer the research questions and other subquestions to address the issue of leadership styles of the leaders of Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Participants received definitions of the various leadership styles or attributes referenced in this research to achieve a coherent understanding. The goal of this study was to employ a qualitative research method to explore the different leadership styles, such as transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant, of pastors, deacons, and ministers, of Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, and those styles’ influence on the growth of church membership. A detailed discussion of the theories will appear in Chapter 2.

 

Nature of the Study

 

A qualitative methodology with a case study research design was appropriate for this study. Qualitative examination supports the study of how individuals and groups establish significance. This qualitative investigation involved gathering data in the form of interviews, observations, and documents to identify substantively relevant patterns and themes (Patton, 2015). Qualitative methods supported identification of the whole phenomenon in its natural, organic setting. Rather than aiming to achieve comparable understanding and law-like generalizations, I was more interested in establishing comprehending and holistic gratitude for the addition of knowledge (Morden et al., 2015). By examining details and narratives from participants’ perspectives (Yin, 2014),

10 qualitative researchers devote substantial awareness to deciding what data is relevant to the phenomenon under study (Patton, 2015).

 

In contrast, the quantitative research methodology was not appropriate for this study because it underlines objective measurements, gathering numerical data, and generalizing the data to provide clarifications on a specific issue (Bryman, 2015). Quantitative researchers employ statistical methods to gather numerical data and produce an additional group of data for review (Quick & Hall, 2015). Furthermore, numerical and statistical methods do not permit participants to provide specific statements about their experiences (Morgan, 2015). The mixed-method technique employs concurrent gathering, examination, and clarification of qualitative and quantitative data (Zohrabi, 2013). Additionally, the mixed methodology improves the validity, reliability, and clarification of information from different resources. A mixed method was not suitable for this study, however, because as quantitative data was neither essential nor required for this study.

Qualitative researchers stress the social nature of reality, and because the focus of this study was social organizations, the exploratory case study design was appropriate. A case study research design stands on its own as a detailed and rich story about a person, organization, event, campaign, or program (Patton, 2015). This method ensured that the subject was not observed from a single viewpoint but through a variety of different perspectives, which permitted disclosure and understanding of various aspects surrounding the problem (Patton, 2015; Yin, 2014). In a qualitative case study, I could gather the perspectives of church leaders and members of congregations to explore four

 

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leadership styles, transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant, and how those styles influenced the growth of church membership in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State.

A case study is an empirical inquiry into a contemporary phenomenon (the case) in depth and within its real-world context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context may not be evident (Yin, 2014). The scope and features of a case study comprise three aspects. The first aspect is that the study deals with technically distinctive situations. The second describes that several informational resources merge by triangulation, and the third aspect holds that the case study method can direct the collection and analysis of data by setting up theoretical propositions (Yin, 2014). Further, Yin (2014) described the case study method as an all-encompassing approach that can be applied in both quantitative and qualitative research. However, a case study is usually classified as a qualitative method because it emphasizes the in-depth understanding acquired predominantly by qualitative methods (Yin, 2014).

A case study concentrates on the development within a group, resulting in a complete examination with an existing broad picture of subjects from varied information resources (Yin, 2014). An exploratory case study involves a single association and setting, or a comparative case study includes multiple associations and settings (Yin, 2014). Other techniques would not meet the purpose of this research, including grounded theory, narrative, content analysis, ethnography, and phenomenology. A phenomenological or ethnographic study was not helpful for this research as the design focused on a cultural group from a definite information source, without a procedure in a

 

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group of persons (Morgan, 2015). The grounded theory could not accommodate the incorporation of numerous wide-ranging responses from participants within an organization (Mellon, 2015). Also, the narrative design is an author’s narrative and may, therefore, involve omitting details and issues from the providers (Wolgemuth, 2014). Furthermore, these specific study methods cannot describe as well as distinguish the powers and distinctiveness of the case study research (Merriam, 2014). To a certain extent, the distinctiveness of case study research established the kinds of inquiries raised with the connections established among the studied phenomena.

The case study design incorporated numerous methods of collecting information with the capacity to make ordinary dynamics of the data (Merriam, 2014). Once the data collection and transcript review processes were complete, I used NVivo software to help generate themes and inscribe the purpose of the research (Brandão, 2015). In this study, I conducted individual face-to-face interviews with the participants, 10 pastors, 10 deacons, 10 ministers, and 10 members of the congregations and one focus group of five of those participants, from four Pentecostal Churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. I generated an interpretation of the information, reviewed ideas or themes that appeared, evaluated information with each participant, and asked additional questions to elicit clarification if needed.

 

Definitions

 

This section presents important terms to explain or interpret a familiar understanding and bring coherence to the wider scope of this research study.

Case study: A qualitative case study a demanding, holistic account and examination of a bounded phenomenon, for example, a plan, an organization, an individual, procedure, or a social entity (Merriam, 2014).

 

Coding system: An instrument that contains the possible codes and organizes them into categories (Busjahn, Schulte, & Kropp, 2014).

Deacon: Individuals chosen and situated within the Pentecostal church who are responsible for evaluating the members’ desires within the church and for gathering and allocating monetary and other possessions (Wiersma & VanDyke, 2009).

Laissez-faire: The obvious lack of leadership (Bass & Avolio, 1990).

Leader effectiveness: Determination of whether leaders have the skills to bring about preferred outcomes. Effectiveness entails meeting secondary professional matters and adding to the efficiency of organizations (Bass & Avolio, 1990).

 

Leadership: The procedures of persuading others to appreciate and consent on the issues about what needs to be completed and assisting individual and combined attempts to achieve divided purposes (Yukl, 2013). Leadership is a procedure by which an individual, guides other individuals to accomplish an ordinary goal (Northouse, 2013).

 

Servant leadership: The leaders in this style of leadership share power and invest in the wants and growth of the individuals they guide and serve their communities (Laub, 2014).

Transformational leadership: A leadership method that appeals to the good values of followers by trying to uplift their awareness concerning moral matters as well as to prepare their vigor and resources to improve organizations. Followers perceive a feeling

14 of hope, admiration, loyalty, and respect and are motivated to exceed the expected levels of performance (Yukl, 2013).

 

Transactional leadership: A leadership method that involves inspiring followers by appealing to their self-interest and interchanging benefits. The result might require benefits significant to the interchanging procedure, such as truthfulness, equality, control, and mutuality (Yukl, 2013).

 

Assumptions

 

Assumptions are ideas or conditions that exist beyond the researcher’s control; nonetheless, they may significantly impact the research (Baranyi, Csapo, & Sallai, 2015). The first assumption was that the qualitative case study was suitable to explore the elements connected to this research study. The second assumption was Alexandria, and Springfield, Virginia was a geographical area of suitable size to yield good data for this research study. The third assumption was that the pastors, deacons, ministers, and members of congregations would have knowledge of the different leadership styles and how they were practiced within the Pentecostal churches and that these participants would provide correct, thoughtful, and pertinent information. Also, the individuals who participated in the research study would be aware that the purpose of the study was to determine the most appropriate leadership styles practiced in the Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Finally, I assumed that the church leaders or administrators and the participants would offer their consent and total support as this research aimed to help their nonprofit organizations in discovering the appropriate/suitable leadership style.

Scope and Delimitations

The scope of the research consisted of pastors, deacons, ministers, and members of the congregation as participants of their various Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. I conducted face-to-face interviews with a sample from the target population: 10 pastors, 10 deacons, 10 ministers, and 10 members of the congregations from four Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Yin (2014) stated that the aim or reason for choosing a specific sample size is to achieve a group of participants who will provide significant and pertinent information, considering the research topic. The rationale was that this number of participants could be accurately connected to the depth of thoughts and diverse accounts of an issue (Kaczynski, Salmona, & Smith, 2014).

 

Delimitations reflect the limits of a study (Leedy & Ormrod, 2013). In this study, some issues described the borders of the study’s techniques and purposes, questions, conceptual framework, and population. The population included leaders and members of congregations within the Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. The population did not include leaders and members of congregations outside the Pentecostal denomination, congregations situated outside of the geographical borders of this study, or members of other religious nonprofit organizations. Even though related to the study, the bureaucratic, democratic, and charismatic leadership theories were not reviewed in detail; however, references to them will be used to distinguish leadership styles and characteristics. With regards to transferability, my intention was for this study

16 to benefit other Pentecostal and non-Pentecostal churches in other geographical locations and cultures.

Limitations

A study’s limitations are potential weaknesses that exist outside the control of the researcher (Depoy & Gitlin, 2015). The design of this study created some limitations. First, the data collection methods for this study were individual face-to-face interviews with a sample from the target population, 10 pastors, 10 deacons, 10 ministers, and 10 members of the congregations, and one focus group interview five of those participants from four Pentecostal Churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Also, the study was limited to church leaders and members of Pentecostal churches in Alexandria, and Springfield, Virginia; these limits meant that findings of this study would apply only to churches in this geographical area.

 

Another potential limitation of this study was that bias from the researcher might limit the findings of this study, because personal bias may emerge from a researcher’s previous affiliations or relationships. It is significant to mention that researchers performing case study research are prone to bias because the method entails that the researcher determines the basis of the topic in advance (J. Smith & Noble, 2014; Yin, 2014). Even though I am a member of a local Pentecostal church in Abeokuta, Ogun State, the leaders and members of the congregation of my church did not participate in this research study. Additionally, I had no private or professional connection with any of the sample participants. I protected the confidentiality of the research participants’ identities and communication and employed ethical procedures to

eliminate any bias. Checking for and recognizing biases via continuous reflection supported the achievement of sufficient depth and relevance of data collection and analysis (Wegener, 2014).

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study derived from several sources. Its findings may reveal the consequence of leadership styles, operations, and reliable components among leaders in church organizations. The findings may guide church leaders to secure a sound understanding of how church leadership styles relate to the prosperity of the church as a nonprofit organization. The data may also provide notable information on prevailing leadership styles and how they aid in the future of the church in a nonprofit organizational setting. The results of this study could be used in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, to strengthen the leadership styles of leaders and members and to expand a better knowledge and understanding of their role as leaders in the church.

Findings of this study may also prove useful as the church continues its efforts to serve as the cornerstone organization for meeting the needs of diverse communities (Watkins, 2014). After the completion of this study, the administration of upper and mid-level church leadership in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, may become more relevant in a culture that threatens to leave the church behind. Also, in this study, Pentecostal church leaders could gain a new outlook on their leadership practices, obtain tools that will help them build their organizations effectively, and

 

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support their members’ efforts to create a positive influence that could change their communities and cities.

Significance to Practice

The study aimed to present an improved awareness of leadership and organizational procedures in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, and the level at which leadership styles influences church growth. This study may prove to be important to the senior pastors and other church leaders, especially the leaders who participated in the research study. These leaders may develop into more effective church leaders, thus achieving a meaningful appreciation of their capabilities, activities, and organizational results. The leaders in Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State, who are concerned with creating a more comprehensive and pleasant atmosphere for church members, should positively appreciate these qualities and offer leadership possibilities for members to further their leadership goals. Finally, the results of this study may encourage other members of the Pentecostal churches to learn how to be leaders and understand what it will take to fulfill a leadership position within the church.

Significance to Theory

The problem of the growth of church membership and its connection to church leadership styles was the focus of this qualitative case study. For this study, the elements that may influence church leaders and membership growth include leadership, church vision, communication, and outreach to millennials. The conceptual framework of this study was the full-range leadership theory (Bass, 1996) and servant leadership theory

 

 

19 (Greenleaf, 1970). The theories explained important details of leadership function within a nonprofit organization such as a church. In the context of organizational change, these concepts provide awareness of the evaluation and study of leaders’ leadership styles and influences on growth. These concepts served as a foundation for identifying the leadership styles of leaders in a church environment.

Significance to Social Change

Churches have a special responsibility to the communities they serve, and church leaders’ duties are vital to creating an impact on the members of those communities. Individuals look for protection within the church and put their faith in church leaders. The impact of the church leaders within the communities can help to motivate and raise awareness of the leadership styles of leaders and the care and services they give to individuals within the church environment. Moreover, churches continue their efforts to act as the cornerstone and meet the needs of diverse communities (Watkins, 2014). If a connection exists between leadership styles and organizational growth, numerous changes in the education, recruitment, and professional development of churches need examination. In this study, the direction for midlevel church leadership in the United States can become more applicable in a society that threatens to leave the church behind, rendering it unfruitful and unsuccessful at a time when its members are in desperate need of a powerful signal of pertinent, relevant values, and scope for guidance.

Furthermore, with information regarding the effectiveness of church leaders and churches, the lives of individuals within the communities can be changed through a process of social transformation. Individuals will no longer be hungry as they will be

20 provided for, protected from abuse and neglect, and have their lives transformed for the better. With this study, leaders in churches in America will understand their leadership practices to help build their organizations efficiently and empower their members to make a positive impact that will change their communities and cities.

 

Also, with the help of good and generous church leaders, the communities will go on to benefit from required services, and individuals will be supported to develop their abilities to become effective leaders. The creation of strong leaders within the church environment may lead to more direct and organized help while communities experience unexpected challenges. Therefore, leadership is an important factor in preparing members for the turbulent change in the future. Such change includes technological advancements, political change, and new ways of meeting the demands of the future church due to social change.

Summary and Transition

In this study, I explored the various leadership styles, transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant of church leaders and those styles’ impact on church growth within the Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. This study is important because it is an examination of the effect of leadership styles, process, and dependable mechanism among leaders in church organizations. Qualitative data collection methods allowed church leaders to display their beliefs about how church leadership styles connect to the success of the church as a nonprofit organization. The data may offer important information on current leadership styles that will help in the prospects of the church in a nonprofit organizational setting. The results of this study will

 

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help churches and their leaders to promote leadership development efforts and offer extensive implications for social change within church communities. Also, strong organizations will appeal to and connect more individuals in leadership by creating and expanding individuals through the development of communities and exhibiting legitimacy (Laub, 2014).

 

Chapter 1 of this study included a summary of this research study, comprising the background of the study, the problem statement, the research questions, conceptual frames of the study, scope and limitations, delimitations of the study, and definitions of the key terms of study. Chapter 2 contains a comprehensive literature review concerning transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, and servant leadership styles, and their impact on the growing membership within Pentecostal churches in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Also, Chapter 2 examines the basis for applying the full-range leadership theory (Bass, 1996) and the servant leadership theory (Greenleaf, 1970). The literature review will discuss leadership styles and how they impact membership growth in churches.

 

 

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