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ISSUES AND MOTIVES IN THE FUNDING OF BASIC EDUCATION
A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL IN ODEDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
A RESEARCH WORK SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCTAION, OSIELE, ABEOKUTA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION
I certify that this work was carried out under my supervision by NAME in the Department of Primary Education Department, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
This project work is dedicated to the same yesterday, today and forever the Almighty God for his total grace made sufficient for me to successfully complete my Nigeria Certificate in Education
My special and adorable Mummy Miss. NAME. God will make you a blessed child to your generation. Amen
I will ecol you Lord; for thou has lifted me, above my enemies, your banner over me is love. Halleluyah.
My gratitude appreciation is also directed to my caring and wonderful mother Mrs. Adeyemi Silifat who always look forward towards my achievement in life and for your physical Spiritual, Moral and Financially contribution on my academic, may you live long to reap the fruit of your Labour in Prosperity.
I also express my innermost gratitude to my Daddy Mr. Adeyemi Jimoh and my lovely Uncle Mr. Adeyemi Kehinde for been there for me all the time. I pray you will not labour in vain. Thanks so much sir.
I comprehend the effort of my supervisor Mr. Lawal for devoting his time and guiding me in all aspect of this project work in making sure that it result to success, may God give attention to all your request in Jesus name.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
- Statement of the problem
- Objectives of the study
- Significance of the study
- Research Hypothesis
- Scope of the study
- Limitations of the study
- Definition of Operational Terms
- Literature Review
- The need for the Funding Basic Primary Education Scheme in Ogun State
- The Objectives of the Universal Basic Education Scheme
- The Genesis of Funding of Basic Primary Education and Its Initial Motives for the Northern Region
- The Issues of the Funding of Basic Education
- The Prospects of the Universal Basic Education
- Research Design
- Population of the study
- Sample and Sampling Techniques
- Instrument for Data Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
- data Analysis
- Presentation and Interpretation of Data Observations and Further Analysis
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
Primary education is crucial to the development of education and to national growth and development of any nation. It lays the foundation for successful nation building, security and better standards of living for the citizens. In Nigeria several programmes have been designed to ensure basic education for all citizens. Among these is the Funding of Basic Education (FBE) which was launched in 1999 and has a semblance with the Universal Primary Education (UPE) Scheme of 1976. The implementation of the previously launched programme UPE was abandoned.
The aim of this research is to appraise the UBE Scheme, studying its origins and the foundational policies, recognizing the need for it, its fundamental problems within the limited study area as a reflection of the general challenges faced on the national scene, to discover the prospects that exist for successful implementation of the program and suggest solutions to the identified problems so as to ensure that access to basic education is given to all, paving way for growth and development of Odeda Local Government Area.
Funding primary education has been a very big question that the answer has remained elusive in Odeda Local Government. In fact, funding of basic education sector has been a big challenge to each Local Government that comes on board in Ogun State. Funding the primary education sector has been a cog in the wheel of education development progress in Odeda Local Government. Odeda is rated among the poorest funded education sector even in Ogun State, where she claims to be the giant. According to Maduewesi, (2007), “Public Primary Education is a capital-intensive, non-profit making social service. Technically, it is never “free” at any level. It must be paid for somehow, by somebody”. In the view of King, (2010), “education is after defense, the biggest single item of national expenditure” in most State of the Nigeria, in Ogun State, this is certainly not the situation today. If anything, we have been experiencing a decline outlay for education as a percentage of the nation budget in the past ten years. For example, the figures decline from 1% in 1999 to 8% in 2000, then 5% in 2002 and a meager 1.8% in 2003. Any wonder then that we are having a worsening funding problem in primary education. The consequences are felt everywhere, hence the intensification of the crises in education sub-systems and institutions. Nigerian governments both military and civilian are accused of underfunding the education sector. Ogun State has never met the UNO specification of 26% annual budget allocation to education. UNICEF (2005) rated Nigeria as the tenth worst and deviant country in funding education. Yet she hopes to use education as the instrument of economic, social and political development. A number of Odeda Local Government’s had long seen education as the surest way of making State both free and great. They had long seen education as the catalyst to political and economic growth and development in Ogun State. The message which Fafunwa gave us as a nation, if we would stop and listen is that in the 21st century, nothing will be as important as the educated mind, the properly and well technologically trained mind, what he is emphasizing to us is not just the desirability of, but the utmost necessity of the highest quality and expanded dimensions of the educational effort, cast, right from the beginning, in the language in which the child grows and develops. Ocho, (2001) opined, “Since education is a public good which cannot be free, all who benefit from its product should share in the cost. Therefore parents, communities, corporate bodies and the three levels of government must carry the burden of providing education for all citizens”.
All over the world, primary education has been regarded as the most important as well as the most patronized by people. This perhaps may be due to the fact that it is the foundation of the whole educational pursuit, which is expected to provide literacy and enlightenment to the citizens. The importance of primary education can therefore be seen in the sense that all beneficiaries of the other levels of education by necessity have to pass through his level (Oni, 2008). What this means is that primary education defined as the education given in an institution for children aged 6-11 years plus constitutes the bedrock upon, which the entire education system is built. Indeed, the success and failure of the entire education system are determined by it and it is at the heart of the concept of basic education also defined as universalization of access of education (Oni, 2008).
It has been documented that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labour as well as bringing about empowerment. This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens of the world to have access to basic education; primary education has been regarded as the most important as well as the most patronized by people. This perhaps, may be due to the fact that it is the foundation of the whole educational pursuit, which is expected to provide literacy and enlightenment to the citizens. The importance of primary education can therefore be seen in the sense that all beneficiaries of the other levels of education by necessity have to pass through this level.
Over the years, Nigeria has expressed a commitment to primary or what we here refer to as basic education, in the belief that overcoming illiteracy and ignorance will form a basis for accelerated national development. Recognizing the importance of primary education, all governments in Ogun State (past and present) have placed a premium on it by making primary education the center piece of their educational policies.
This research looks into how far that this UBE has been implemented and its objectives achieved in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. It also would hypothesize on the problems of the Scheme, investigating the opinions of the public and several selected school administrators to find out the problems, and proffer solutions.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is common opinion and knowledge among people from all funding of operation that the Basic Education Scheme has encountered many problems.
This research work would investigate the problems militating against the successful implementation of the primary education in Odeda Local Government Area and the prospects of the Scheme in Odeda as well as in Ogun State as a whole.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research include:
- To investigate the problems encountered in the process of motives the funding of primary education in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State;
- To analyze the causes of these issues;
- To review the prospects of the successful implementation of the Scheme in the area, making reasonable generalizations about the development of the people of Odeda, if the Scheme is valued accordingly; and
- To suggest solutions and recommendations to overcoming the challenges faced in the area.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Education is more than important to any people of any society or country and its importance cannot be over emphasized, especially in the area of basic learning skills such as reading and writing. Whatever an individual wishes to become they could be unique with proper primary education.
From all of the foregoing, the importance of education to human beings is invaluable. Education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely for the reason of being human. There are a lot of international human rights instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right. These include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981) to mention but a few.
This study is therefore, an eye-opener that seeks to help and encourage inhabitants, indigenes and teachers to understand and change their orientation towards primary education, especially the UBE Scheme which is free. The quality of primary education even marks the extent of success a person can attain in a lifetime.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This research will work with the following assumptions:
- That the major problems that the basic primary education is faced with in Odeda Local Government are lack of funding, inadequate infrastructure, mass promotion and religious influence.
- That there are many interrelated problems as stated above that are confronting the some selected primary education in Odeda Local Government as well as in other parts of Ogun State.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study to the nation at large cannot be overemphasized. However, the study is narrowed down to a few UBE schools in Odeda area as sample for convenience purposes and a thorough investigation, and also in order to seek the overall progress of the scheme, the prevailing problems of the UBE, and recommend some solutions that could be adopted, and perhaps applied in other parts of the country.
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The capturing of this study is faced with a number of setbacks such as insufficient data (lack of access inclusive), insufficient funding, lack of time and other means including gender disparities.
- DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
Disparity – Lack of equality between people or things
Education – A relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of conscious and unconscious learning
Empowerment – Make more confident or assertive: to give somebody a greater sense of confidence or self-esteem
Human Rights – freedom, justice, and equality: the rights that are considered by most societies to belong automatically to everyone
Investigate – to carry out official inquiry
MDG – Millennium Development Goals
Militate – Have influence on something: to have an influence, especially a negative one, on something
NEI – Northern Education Initiative
NPE – National Policy on Education
Posterity – People in future: all future generations
Productivity – The ability to be productive
Prospects – Expectations of success: the likelihood of being successful or prosperous in the future
UBE – Universal Basic Education
UPE – Universal Primary Education
WCEFA – World Conference on Education for all