I certify that this project was carried out and written by BELLO, Hafis; of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University; under the supervision of Dr. Abel Omoniyi AFON.



This project is dedicated to Almighty God for His Guidance and Protection, and to my beloved parents Late Alhaji A. F. O. Bello and Mrs. Mujidat Bello.



I thank Almighty God, the giver of knowledge and wisdom; who has provided me the opportunity to complete this research exercise.

I wish to appreciate the Head of Department, Dr. L. M. Olayiwola. I acknowledge the constructive, objective and highly intelligent criticisms and corrections of my supervisor, Dr. A. O. AFON. I also appreciate the academic and moral supports of Prof. L. O. Olajuyin, Prof. E. A. Ogunjumo, Prof. S. O.  Fadare, Dr Okewole, Dr. E. O. Omisore, Dr. A. O. Adeleye, Dr. P. O. Olawuni, Dr. S. A. Adeyinka, Mr. A. A. Abegunde, Ms Okereke, and Ms Olayiwola.

My gratitude goes to the staff of the Lagos State Ministry of Environment and the Lagos State Waste Management Agency for their support especially towards gathering the required data for this study. Foremost in this category are Mr. Alugo, and Mr. Jeje.

I appreciate the financial and moral support of my mother, Mrs. M. Bello; and my Uncle, Mr M. A. Bello, and his wife Mrs. T. A. Bello. My profound gratitude goes to Alhaji and Mrs. A. O. Oguntade; Mr. D. A. Emiola; my siblings- Wasiu, Taoheed, Idayat, Abideen, Tosin, Mistura, Idris, Zainab and Ahmad Bello. My special thanks go to Mr. and Mrs. Oyebamiji, Mr. and Mrs. Badmus, and Mr. and Mrs. Lawal for their constant advices. I also thank my fiancée-Rakayat Adenike Lawal for her scrutiny and intelligent contributions to this project.

Finally, I wish to thank all those who have in one way or the other, assisted in this project work. May God Almighty assist everyone and reward you abundantly.

Thank you all and God Bless.




Title Page




Table of content                                                                                                   v-vii

List of Tables

List of Plates

List of Figures



Chapter One                                                                                        1-6

INTRODUCTION                                                                                             1-3

1.1            The Problem                                                                                                3-4

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study                                                          5

1.3 Justification of Study                                                                              5-6


Chapter Two                                                                                       7-31


2.1 Sanitation Related Diseases                                                                  8-9

2.2 The Sanitation Challenge                                                               9-14

2.2.1 Poverty                                                                                                11-12

2.2.2 Inadequate Sanitation Facilities                                                 12

2.2.3 Environmental Sanitation Practices                                          13-14

2.3 Aspects of Environmental Sanitation Practices                               14-16

2.4 Spatial Nature of Sanitation Problems                                        16-23

2.4.1 The Case of Kigali, Rwanda                                                        16-17

2.4.2 The Case of Bangladesh                                                              17

2.4.3 The Nigerian Experience                                                 17-23

2.5 Core Areas of Human Settlements                                                      23-24

2.6 Issues on Improving Sanitation                                                     24-30

2.6.1 Financing                                                                                         25

2.6.2 Technology Transfer and Innovation                                      25-26

2.6.3 Institutional Capacity                                                                  26

2.6.4 Demand-responsive approaches to sanitation                      26-27

2.6.5 Communication /Awareness Programmes                             27-30

2.7 Efforts of the Government towards Improving

Sanitation Practices in Nigeria                                                               30-31


Chapter Three                                                                                   32-34

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                                     32

3.1.1 Method of data collection                                                                    32-33

3.1.2. Method of data analysis                                                                     33-34


Chapter Four                                                                                      35-38

THE STUDY AREA                                                                                           35-37

3.1  Land Use Activities in the Core Areas of Ikorodu                            37

3.2 Environmental Sanitation in the Core of Ikorodu Town               38


Chapter Five                                                                                       39-62


CORE OF IKORODU                                                                                     39

4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Residents

in the Study area                                                                                        39-43

4.2 Sanitation Facilities Available in the Area                                        43-50

4.2.1 Water Supply                                                                                  43-45

4.2.2            Cooking Facilities                                                                           45-46

              4.2.3 Household Sanitation Facilities                                                46 Kitchen facilities                                                                  47 Bathroom                                                                              47 Soak away pit, Septic tank, Waste water pit

and Drainage                                                                                  47-48 Toilet facilities                                                                     48-49

4.2.4            Waste storage items                                                                      49-50

4.3 Location of Household Sanitation Facilities                         51

4.4 Waste Management Issues                                                              52-57

4.4.1 Duration of waste collection/disposal                                      52

4.4.2  Methods of waste disposal                                                         53-57

4.5 Response to Inadequacy of the Sanitation Facilities              57-58

4.5.1  Kitchen Facilities                                                                            57

4.5.2            Toilet Facilities                                                                               57

4.5.3 Bathroom Facilities                                                                       58

4.5.4            Waste water pits                                                                             58

4.6 Health Situation in the area                                                                 58-59

4.7 The Monthly Sanitation Exercise                                                        59

4.8 Relationship between selected variables and the

duration of drainage clearance                                                           60-61

4.9 Relationship between education and

method of water purification                                                              62

4.10 Relationship between occupation and

method of water purification                                                 62


Chapter Six                                                                                               63-68

CONCLUSION                                                                                                        63

6.1  Summary of Findings                                                                               63-67

6.2 Recommendation                                                                                       67-68

REFERENCES                                                                                                        69-74

APPENDIX                                                                                                                75-79

List of Tables


Table 1: Distribution of Households by Water Supply

in Nigerian Urban Centres (In %ages)                                     19

Table 2: Regular Sources of Water to Urban Households                     20

Table 3: Order of Cost Estimates for the Water Supply

and Sanitation Sector in Nigeria                                                           22

Table 4: Education Status of Respondents                                                41

Table 5: Type of Building                                                                                42

Table 6: Sources of water in the area                                                           44

Table 7: Method of water purification                                                        45

Table 8: Household Sanitation Facilities                                                    47

Table 9: Waste Storage Items                                                                        50

Table 10: Method of Waste Disposal                                                            55


List of Plates


Plate A: Map of Nigeria showing Lagos State                                            35

Plate B: Map of Lagos state showing the study area                                36


List of Figures


Figure A: The Sanitation Challenge                                                 10

Figure B: Type of Toilet Facilities in the

Urban Centres (1991/92)                                                             20

Figure C: Type of Toilet Facilities in the

Urban Centres (1995/96)                                                 21

Figure D: Communication Planning Process                                 27

Figure E: Cooking facilities used in the area                                  46

Figure F: Type of toilet facilities                                                        49

Figure G: Location of Household Facilities                                    51

Figure H: Duration of waste storage before

collection/disposal                                                                        52

Figure I: Health cases reported by the residents                           59


This study evaluated the sanitation facilities and services available in the city core areas with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation behaviours emanating from the level of adequacies of these amenities. Ikorodu town in Lagos state was the focus of the study.

Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data collection was through questionnaire administration and observations made by the researcher. The questionnaires were administered using the systematic random sampling technique whereby every tenth house within central area of the town was selected for study. A respondent was sampled in each of the selected buildings. From the above, 218 houses were sampled altogether. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used for the study. The descriptive tools used include frequency tables, bar diagrams and line graphs while regression analysis and chi-square were used to make inferences.

The study established that the major land uses were commercial (49.5%) and residential (34.2%). The average monthly income in the area is approximately N15,000. The study also indicated that 46.8% of the residents had secondary school qualification while 17.9% had vocational training. The findings revealed that the use well water regularly represents 30.3 %. Respondents that use pipe-borne water regularly accounted for 43.6 % while 8.7 % use stream water. It was established that only 56% of the buildings have kitchen facilities; 81.7 % have toilet facilities while 78 % have bathroom facilities. Buildings with soak away pit, septic tank, waste water pit and drainage were 43.1 %, 17.4 %, 34.4 % and 20.2 % respectively. It was also established the use of water closet gained highest prominence in the area. The finding also indicated that the waste storage receptacle mostly used in the area is the covered refuse bins representing 59.6 %. Solid waste disposal through PSP operators gained highest significance. The study established that 61 % of those who do not have adequate kitchen facilities manage the available space, 26 % cook in their rooms while 13 % cook on the corridor. Responses to inadequate sanitation amenities were not environmentally friendly. For instance, the study established that 47.4% of the residents without toilet facilities do throw their excreta in the drains while 65.5% of the households without waste water pits discharge their waste water on the street. The regression analysis showed that there is significant relationship between the socio-economic variables and the duration of drainage clearance. The R2 value of 57.3 % showed that the independent variables were able to explain 57.3 % of the total variation in drainage clearance in the area. Findings from the survey also showed that there is a relationship between the education of the respondents and the duration of waste storage before disposal. This assertion was confirmed by the chi-square value of 91.329.

The study concludes that the poor environmental sanitation conditions noted in the area were determined by the inadequate supply of amenities and resident’s response to the inadequacies.


Chapter One



A healthy living environment is sine-qua-non to national growth and development. Such condition can be achieved through an effective environmental sanitation practice.

Roland et al. (2004) noted that environmental sanitation

‘comprises the proper collection, transportation, disposal and

treatment of human excreta, solid waste and waste water,

control of disease vectors and provision of washing facilities

for personal and domestic hygiene.’


Bindeshwar (1999) also viewed sanitation as ‘a basic condition for development.’ It is aimed at improving the quality of life of the individuals; contributes to social development and abatement of diseases. Sadalla et al (2001) noted that the environmental problems may be caused by inadequate provision of facilities and residents’ behaviour in communities

Despite its importance in human life, Mosleh Uddin and Sudhir (2005) observed that the provision of sanitation facilities and services is poor in developing countries. Roland et al (2004) added that a significant number of people in these countries ‘lack access to adequate water supply, environmental sanitation services and food security’. This, according to Bindeshwar (1999), contributes to the ‘death of millions of children below the age of five every year; and about 50 diseases are linked with poor sanitation’.

The negative environmental practices of individuals are also contributory to this menace. In fact, the provision of adequate sanitation facilities could at best be referred to as means to an end since the attitude and behavioural practices of the stakeholders determine the end. Public perception of the need for proper sanitation goes a long way in providing desired solutions that would mitigate the consequences. Generally, poor sanitation practices could result from overcrowding, inadequate facilities and amenities, low level of education and awareness on sanitation practices, low income level, unplanned housing development, among others.

Several studies have shown that problems of environmental sanitation are not limited to a particular residential zone. Such studies reveal that such problems occur in the traditional core areas, urban centres and peri-urban areas or suburbs. Studies based on the sanitation problems in the core areas include for example those on Lagos (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989; Kenneth et al, 2003; and Afon, 2006); Ibadan (Egunjobi, 1989) in Nigeria. Such studies also exist outside Nigeria. These include those on Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, and India (Bindeshwar, 1999 and Sabur, 2006); Bangladesh (Musleh Uddin and Sudhir, 2000); and Nakhon Pathon in Thailand (Lagho, 2001).

None of these studies examined the relationship existing between the provisions of environmental sanitation facilities and the responses or behaviour due to the adequacy of facilities in core areas Ikorodu in Lagos state.


1.1  The Problem

The core area of any settlement is the point of reception, the hub of activities and distribution of internal and external goods and services (Tanimowo, 2001). It is the point of major commercial and residential land uses. Consequently, core areas often have more facilities compared to other parts of their respective settlements. These facilities and services do attract people from other parts of the settlement. This results in overcrowding with the diverse negative effects. Olayiwola and Omisore (2001) and Nwaka (2005) observed that such effects include poor accessibility, high occupancy ratio, lack of proper drainage, inadequate infrastructure and social amenities, environmental pollution and poor sanitation.

Nwaka (2005) noted that residential neighbourhoods in the core areas are being developed without effective planning and adequate provision of basic services and facilities including transportation, health, employment, security and sanitation facilities. Other problems identified with these areas include overcrowding, inadequate provision of basic services and poor network of public transport modes.

These features of the core areas aggravate the unwholesome living condition of the residents. Consequently, there are growing cases of water-borne and filth related diseases especially diarrhea, cholera and malaria (Roland et al, 2004). These contribute to loss of lives and man-hour which results to colossal loss to economic growth and development. The problems are worsened in developing countries like Nigeria, where there is inadequate health facilities to alleviate the problems (Nwaka, 2005). Of interest to the study is to provide answers to questions like: what are the sanitation facilities in the core areas? How do the residents respond to inadequacies in the provision of these facilities? What is the health implication of non-provision of these facilities?


1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study 

This study is aimed at evaluating the sanitation facilities and services available in the city core areas with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation behaviours emanating from the level of adequacies of these amenities.

The objectives include to:

  • identify the different sanitation facilities available in the area
  • identify the various level of adequacies of the amenities
  • examine the residents’ responses to the level of adequacies
  • determine the environmental sanitation problems emanating from residents’ behaviour.


1.3 Justification of Study

The importance of clean environment to a healthy living condition for man cannot be over-emphasized. This has necessitated the need for effective and regular sanitation activities the world over. The provision of adequate sanitation facilities, urban infrastructure and enabling environmental sanitation policies influence the achievement of a high quality living condition for man and his environment.

There is already a growing concern by the government and the public on the environmental conditions and provision of sanitation facilities in the major cities of the world. This has necessitated the huge finances concentrated on the provision and improvement of sanitation facilities in these cities. This is not the case in core areas of the developing countries. The fact that these areas offer employment opportunities and offer cheapest housing especially to new migrants (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989) has made them most overcrowded in the cities. Consequently, various environmental sanitation problems are often encountered in these areas (Egunjobi, 1989).