MAKE PAYMENT FOR FULL MATERIAL
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES IN THE CORE OF IKORODU, LAGOS STATE
BEING A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING
FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING,
OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE IFE, OSUN STATE.
I certify that this project was carried out and written by BELLO, Hafis; of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University; under the supervision of Dr. Abel Omoniyi AFON.
This project is dedicated to Almighty God for His Guidance and Protection, and to my beloved parents Late Alhaji A. F. O. Bello and Mrs. Mujidat Bello.
I thank Almighty God, the giver of knowledge and wisdom; who has provided me the opportunity to complete this research exercise.
I wish to appreciate the Head of Department, Dr. L. M. Olayiwola. I acknowledge the constructive, objective and highly intelligent criticisms and corrections of my supervisor, Dr. A. O. AFON. I also appreciate the academic and moral supports of Prof. L. O. Olajuyin, Prof. E. A. Ogunjumo, Prof. S. O. Fadare, Dr Okewole, Dr. E. O. Omisore, Dr. A. O. Adeleye, Dr. P. O. Olawuni, Dr. S. A. Adeyinka, Mr. A. A. Abegunde, Ms Okereke, and Ms Olayiwola.
My gratitude goes to the staff of the Lagos State Ministry of Environment and the Lagos State Waste Management Agency for their support especially towards gathering the required data for this study. Foremost in this category are Mr. Alugo, and Mr. Jeje.
I appreciate the financial and moral support of my mother, Mrs. M. Bello; and my Uncle, Mr M. A. Bello, and his wife Mrs. T. A. Bello. My profound gratitude goes to Alhaji and Mrs. A. O. Oguntade; Mr. D. A. Emiola; my siblings- Wasiu, Taoheed, Idayat, Abideen, Tosin, Mistura, Idris, Zainab and Ahmad Bello. My special thanks go to Mr. and Mrs. Oyebamiji, Mr. and Mrs. Badmus, and Mr. and Mrs. Lawal for their constant advices. I also thank my fiancée-Rakayat Adenike Lawal for her scrutiny and intelligent contributions to this project.
Finally, I wish to thank all those who have in one way or the other, assisted in this project work. May God Almighty assist everyone and reward you abundantly.
Thank you all and God Bless.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content v-vii
List of Tables
List of Plates
List of Figures
Chapter One 1-6
1.1 The Problem 3-4
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study 5
1.3 Justification of Study 5-6
Chapter Two 7-31
2.1 Sanitation Related Diseases 8-9
2.2 The Sanitation Challenge 9-14
2.2.1 Poverty 11-12
2.2.2 Inadequate Sanitation Facilities 12
2.2.3 Environmental Sanitation Practices 13-14
2.3 Aspects of Environmental Sanitation Practices 14-16
2.4 Spatial Nature of Sanitation Problems 16-23
2.4.1 The Case of Kigali, Rwanda 16-17
2.4.2 The Case of Bangladesh 17
2.4.3 The Nigerian Experience 17-23
2.5 Core Areas of Human Settlements 23-24
2.6 Issues on Improving Sanitation 24-30
2.6.1 Financing 25
2.6.2 Technology Transfer and Innovation 25-26
2.6.3 Institutional Capacity 26
2.6.4 Demand-responsive approaches to sanitation 26-27
2.6.5 Communication /Awareness Programmes 27-30
2.7 Efforts of the Government towards Improving
Sanitation Practices in Nigeria 30-31
Chapter Three 32-34
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32
3.1.1 Method of data collection 32-33
3.1.2. Method of data analysis 33-34
Chapter Four 35-38
THE STUDY AREA 35-37
3.1 Land Use Activities in the Core Areas of Ikorodu 37
3.2 Environmental Sanitation in the Core of Ikorodu Town 38
Chapter Five 39-62
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES
CORE OF IKORODU 39
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Residents
in the Study area 39-43
4.2 Sanitation Facilities Available in the Area 43-50
4.2.1 Water Supply 43-45
4.2.2 Cooking Facilities 45-46
4.2.3 Household Sanitation Facilities 46
188.8.131.52 Kitchen facilities 47
184.108.40.206 Bathroom 47
220.127.116.11 Soak away pit, Septic tank, Waste water pit
and Drainage 47-48
18.104.22.168 Toilet facilities 48-49
4.2.4 Waste storage items 49-50
4.3 Location of Household Sanitation Facilities 51
4.4 Waste Management Issues 52-57
4.4.1 Duration of waste collection/disposal 52
4.4.2 Methods of waste disposal 53-57
4.5 Response to Inadequacy of the Sanitation Facilities 57-58
4.5.1 Kitchen Facilities 57
4.5.2 Toilet Facilities 57
4.5.3 Bathroom Facilities 58
4.5.4 Waste water pits 58
4.6 Health Situation in the area 58-59
4.7 The Monthly Sanitation Exercise 59
4.8 Relationship between selected variables and the
duration of drainage clearance 60-61
4.9 Relationship between education and
method of water purification 62
4.10 Relationship between occupation and
method of water purification 62
Chapter Six 63-68
6.1 Summary of Findings 63-67
6.2 Recommendation 67-68
List of Tables
Table 1: Distribution of Households by Water Supply
in Nigerian Urban Centres (In %ages) 19
Table 2: Regular Sources of Water to Urban Households 20
Table 3: Order of Cost Estimates for the Water Supply
and Sanitation Sector in Nigeria 22
Table 4: Education Status of Respondents 41
Table 5: Type of Building 42
Table 6: Sources of water in the area 44
Table 7: Method of water purification 45
Table 8: Household Sanitation Facilities 47
Table 9: Waste Storage Items 50
Table 10: Method of Waste Disposal 55
List of Plates
Plate A: Map of Nigeria showing Lagos State 35
Plate B: Map of Lagos state showing the study area 36
List of Figures
Figure A: The Sanitation Challenge 10
Figure B: Type of Toilet Facilities in the
Urban Centres (1991/92) 20
Figure C: Type of Toilet Facilities in the
Urban Centres (1995/96) 21
Figure D: Communication Planning Process 27
Figure E: Cooking facilities used in the area 46
Figure F: Type of toilet facilities 49
Figure G: Location of Household Facilities 51
Figure H: Duration of waste storage before
Figure I: Health cases reported by the residents 59
This study evaluated the sanitation facilities and services available in the city core areas with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation behaviours emanating from the level of adequacies of these amenities. Ikorodu town in Lagos state was the focus of the study.
Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data collection was through questionnaire administration and observations made by the researcher. The questionnaires were administered using the systematic random sampling technique whereby every tenth house within central area of the town was selected for study. A respondent was sampled in each of the selected buildings. From the above, 218 houses were sampled altogether. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used for the study. The descriptive tools used include frequency tables, bar diagrams and line graphs while regression analysis and chi-square were used to make inferences.
The study established that the major land uses were commercial (49.5%) and residential (34.2%). The average monthly income in the area is approximately N15,000. The study also indicated that 46.8% of the residents had secondary school qualification while 17.9% had vocational training. The findings revealed that the use well water regularly represents 30.3 %. Respondents that use pipe-borne water regularly accounted for 43.6 % while 8.7 % use stream water. It was established that only 56% of the buildings have kitchen facilities; 81.7 % have toilet facilities while 78 % have bathroom facilities. Buildings with soak away pit, septic tank, waste water pit and drainage were 43.1 %, 17.4 %, 34.4 % and 20.2 % respectively. It was also established the use of water closet gained highest prominence in the area. The finding also indicated that the waste storage receptacle mostly used in the area is the covered refuse bins representing 59.6 %. Solid waste disposal through PSP operators gained highest significance. The study established that 61 % of those who do not have adequate kitchen facilities manage the available space, 26 % cook in their rooms while 13 % cook on the corridor. Responses to inadequate sanitation amenities were not environmentally friendly. For instance, the study established that 47.4% of the residents without toilet facilities do throw their excreta in the drains while 65.5% of the households without waste water pits discharge their waste water on the street. The regression analysis showed that there is significant relationship between the socio-economic variables and the duration of drainage clearance. The R2 value of 57.3 % showed that the independent variables were able to explain 57.3 % of the total variation in drainage clearance in the area. Findings from the survey also showed that there is a relationship between the education of the respondents and the duration of waste storage before disposal. This assertion was confirmed by the chi-square value of 91.329.
The study concludes that the poor environmental sanitation conditions noted in the area were determined by the inadequate supply of amenities and resident’s response to the inadequacies.
A healthy living environment is sine-qua-non to national growth and development. Such condition can be achieved through an effective environmental sanitation practice.
Roland et al. (2004) noted that environmental sanitation
‘comprises the proper collection, transportation, disposal and
treatment of human excreta, solid waste and waste water,
control of disease vectors and provision of washing facilities
for personal and domestic hygiene.’
Bindeshwar (1999) also viewed sanitation as ‘a basic condition for development.’ It is aimed at improving the quality of life of the individuals; contributes to social development and abatement of diseases. Sadalla et al (2001) noted that the environmental problems may be caused by inadequate provision of facilities and residents’ behaviour in communities
Despite its importance in human life, Mosleh Uddin and Sudhir (2005) observed that the provision of sanitation facilities and services is poor in developing countries. Roland et al (2004) added that a significant number of people in these countries ‘lack access to adequate water supply, environmental sanitation services and food security’. This, according to Bindeshwar (1999), contributes to the ‘death of millions of children below the age of five every year; and about 50 diseases are linked with poor sanitation’.
The negative environmental practices of individuals are also contributory to this menace. In fact, the provision of adequate sanitation facilities could at best be referred to as means to an end since the attitude and behavioural practices of the stakeholders determine the end. Public perception of the need for proper sanitation goes a long way in providing desired solutions that would mitigate the consequences. Generally, poor sanitation practices could result from overcrowding, inadequate facilities and amenities, low level of education and awareness on sanitation practices, low income level, unplanned housing development, among others.
Several studies have shown that problems of environmental sanitation are not limited to a particular residential zone. Such studies reveal that such problems occur in the traditional core areas, urban centres and peri-urban areas or suburbs. Studies based on the sanitation problems in the core areas include for example those on Lagos (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989; Kenneth et al, 2003; and Afon, 2006); Ibadan (Egunjobi, 1989) in Nigeria. Such studies also exist outside Nigeria. These include those on Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, and India (Bindeshwar, 1999 and Sabur, 2006); Bangladesh (Musleh Uddin and Sudhir, 2000); and Nakhon Pathon in Thailand (Lagho, 2001).
None of these studies examined the relationship existing between the provisions of environmental sanitation facilities and the responses or behaviour due to the adequacy of facilities in core areas Ikorodu in Lagos state.
1.1 The Problem
The core area of any settlement is the point of reception, the hub of activities and distribution of internal and external goods and services (Tanimowo, 2001). It is the point of major commercial and residential land uses. Consequently, core areas often have more facilities compared to other parts of their respective settlements. These facilities and services do attract people from other parts of the settlement. This results in overcrowding with the diverse negative effects. Olayiwola and Omisore (2001) and Nwaka (2005) observed that such effects include poor accessibility, high occupancy ratio, lack of proper drainage, inadequate infrastructure and social amenities, environmental pollution and poor sanitation.
Nwaka (2005) noted that residential neighbourhoods in the core areas are being developed without effective planning and adequate provision of basic services and facilities including transportation, health, employment, security and sanitation facilities. Other problems identified with these areas include overcrowding, inadequate provision of basic services and poor network of public transport modes.
These features of the core areas aggravate the unwholesome living condition of the residents. Consequently, there are growing cases of water-borne and filth related diseases especially diarrhea, cholera and malaria (Roland et al, 2004). These contribute to loss of lives and man-hour which results to colossal loss to economic growth and development. The problems are worsened in developing countries like Nigeria, where there is inadequate health facilities to alleviate the problems (Nwaka, 2005). Of interest to the study is to provide answers to questions like: what are the sanitation facilities in the core areas? How do the residents respond to inadequacies in the provision of these facilities? What is the health implication of non-provision of these facilities?
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
This study is aimed at evaluating the sanitation facilities and services available in the city core areas with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation behaviours emanating from the level of adequacies of these amenities.
The objectives include to:
- identify the different sanitation facilities available in the area
- identify the various level of adequacies of the amenities
- examine the residents’ responses to the level of adequacies
- determine the environmental sanitation problems emanating from residents’ behaviour.
1.3 Justification of Study
The importance of clean environment to a healthy living condition for man cannot be over-emphasized. This has necessitated the need for effective and regular sanitation activities the world over. The provision of adequate sanitation facilities, urban infrastructure and enabling environmental sanitation policies influence the achievement of a high quality living condition for man and his environment.
There is already a growing concern by the government and the public on the environmental conditions and provision of sanitation facilities in the major cities of the world. This has necessitated the huge finances concentrated on the provision and improvement of sanitation facilities in these cities. This is not the case in core areas of the developing countries. The fact that these areas offer employment opportunities and offer cheapest housing especially to new migrants (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989) has made them most overcrowded in the cities. Consequently, various environmental sanitation problems are often encountered in these areas (Egunjobi, 1989).