Economic Efficiency of Water Storage Options: An Application of the Ministry Approach of Ghana



Table of Contents
Improving Sanitation in Poor Urban Areas: The Role of Non-State Actors in the Sanitation
Service Delivery in Ashaiman Municipality, Ghana 2
Abena Korang Acheampong Abaitey
Potential Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment – Study of UASB Reactor in Accra,
Ghana 8
K.M. Afful
Implementing Environmental Sanitation Policies and Plans 17
S.E. Amekudzie, R. Boakye & K.M. Afful
Improving Access to Basic Sanitation in Ghana. Lessons from a Water and Sanitation
Project in Ghana 23
Joseph Ampadu-Boakye, Francis Mawuena Dotse, Nii Odai Anidaso Laryea, Daniel Yaw Karikari &
Edward Gyan
(ouseholds’ Perception of Community Toilets in Low )ncome Communities in Kumasi 31
E.O. Appiah & S. Oduro-Kwarteng
Motivation for Construction of Household Toilets in Low Income Communities in Kumasi 38
E.O. Appiah & S. Oduro-Kwarteng
Meeting Ghana’s MDG Target on Sanitation, through Dissemination of Biogas Plants 45
Richard Arthur & Edward Antwi
Ghana’s Revised Environmental Sanitation Policy ʹͲͳͲ: A Review 52
Edem Cudjoe Bensah, Edward Antwi & Julius Cudjoe Ahiekpor
The Canker of Open Defecation 60
Nii Odai Anidaso Laryea, Joseph Ampadu-Boakye, Francis Mawuena Dotse, Daniel Yaw Karikari &
Edward Gyan
No Household Sanitation Facilities: What Options Remain For Urban Dwellers? 66
Adrien Mazeau, Benedict Tuffuor & Kevin Sansom
Biofil Toilet Digester: An Innovative On-Site Treatment 74
V. Mema & Evelyn Gyampo
The Human Factor in Urban Water Services in Ghana 82
Matthew Adombire
Wet Oxidation of Paper Mill Debarking Water: Improving the Rates of Contaminant
Removal 87
Daniel Adjah Anang

Quality Drinking Water for Rural Communities: Technology Options 94
Edward Antwi, Edem Cudjoe Bensah, Julius Cudjoe Ahiekpor, Richard Arthur & Elijah Boadu
Cost of Rural and Small Town Water Service Delivery in the Bosomtwe District 102
E. Appiah-Effah, K.B. Nyarko, B. Dwumfour-Asare & P. Moriarty
Degradation of Water Resources and the Effect on Drinking Water Treatment in Ghana 110
Evans Y. Balaara & Nicholas H. Okyere
Promoting Decentralised Solar Water Purification Systems in Ghana:
A Case Study at Bongo 115
Edem Cudjoe Bensah, Edward Antwi & Julius Cudjoe Ahiekpor
Supply Constraints of Utility Water Services to Newly Developing Private
Estates in Accra 122
Hector Emmanuel Adjetey Boye
Characterisation and Adsorption Potential of Kpong Water Treatment
Plant Filter Media 128
R. Buamah & A. Yakubu
Comparative Study of the Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Drinking
Water in Kumasi and Ho Metropolitan Areas 135
Philip Dwamena-Boateng, Bright Kofi Bansah, Oppong Manu Michael & Raphael K .Klake
Evaluating the Implications of Future Water Resource Development under Current and
Projected Climate in the Volta Basin 140
Gerald Forkuor, Matthew McCartney & Barnabas Amisigo
Capacity Development Tools for Improving Solid Waste Management Services Delivery in
Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies in Ghana 150
Kodwo Beedu Keelson
Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) as a Complementary Approach to Improving Water Supply in
Ghana 158
Jemila Mashood, Joseph Ampadu-Boakye & Nii Odai Anidaso Laryea
Decentralised Water Supply for Low Income Urban Areas: Institutional Arrangements and
Forms of Agreement 163
Kwabena Nyarko & Tim Hayward
Performance of a Multi-District Water Supply Scheme in Ghana Case Study of the Three
District Water Supply Scheme 170
K. B. Nyarko, S. Oduro-Kwarteng, B. Dwumfour-Asare & J. H. Ankomah
Cancer Health Risk Assessment of Resident Adults and Children from Exposure to Arsenic in
Contaminated Water Bodies in Obuasi Municipality 178
S. Obiri, A. F. Armah & A. P. Awuah
Suitability of the Private Finance )nitiative ȋPF)Ȍ System for Adoption in Ghana’s
Water Sector 186
Ofori-Kuragu K, Attafua Y.B. & Lamptey L. J.
Towards a Sustainable Allocation of Potable Water in Ghana: Evidence from Kumasi 194
J. D. Quartey
Impacts of Energy Price Changes on the Financial Sustainability of Water Facilities:
Case from Ghana 203
S. J. Tenkorang, S. N. Odai, F. O. Annor & K. A. Adjei
The Urban Pro-Poor Water Services Delivery The Access Dimension: The Case of AVRL
Tanker Service Supply 210
Benedict Tuffuor, Eugene Larbi & Anne Barendregt
Economic Efficiency of Water Storage Options: An Application of the Approach to Ghana 217
Stefanos Xenarios, Felix Asante & Matthew McCartney
The Effects of Climate Change The Anthropogenic Factor on Vea Reservoir 227
Etornyo Agbeko & Barnabas Amisigo
Enhancing Sustainability of Water and Sanitation Facilities through Mobile
Phone Technology 228
Patrick Apoya & Aelaf Dafla
Construction of Ferrocement Rain-Harvesting Tanks 229
L. Danso-Amoako & Herbert Attefuah
No Toilet at Home: Sanitation Strategies for Urban Dwellers 231
Adrien Mazeau

This paper presents a study on sanitation service delivery in an urban poor locality in Ghana,
Ashaiman. Ashaiman is a sprawling urban settlement in Ghana and suffers from poor sanitary
conditions. Close to 80 per cent of households in the Tulaku area, a suburb of Ashaiman, do not
have toilet facilities in their homes because landlords did not deem it necessary to construct toilet
facilities (Ashaiman Medium Term Development Plan, 2008-2011). Most public toilet facilities are
also in a deplorable state. As a result of these inadequacies, there is over dependence on the few
public toilet facilities and this has further led to indiscriminate defecation in open spaces and
bushes.Compounding the problems discussed above, is the poor attitude of residents who
indiscriminately dispose of refuse, and again, most residents refuse to pay refuse fees. The poor
attitudinal problem has made it increasingly difficult for city authorities to maintain good
sanitation in the communities despite several interventions adopted by the government, as well as,
civil society organizations to improve the appalling sanitation situation.
The study sought to discuss the role played by non-state actors’ sanitation service delivery. The
study identified some challenges confronting the sanitation delivery in Ashaiman as; Inadequate
budgetary and financial allocation for implementing sanitation action plans, lack of sanitation
byelaws at the municipal level, thus, weak or no enforcement of laws, Deficient capacity of civil
society to mobilize the community to engage in sanitation exercises, the Lack of coordination
between local authority and other stakeholders, and the lack of community engagement in the
sanitation service delivery.
A major finding that emerged from the study was that there were a range of community actors in
sanitation delivery, not withstanding, they were not recognized as important stakeholders and
local authorities hardly partner with them in the process of change.
The study has discussed measures of improving sanitation in the poor urban localities of Ghana
and recommends that if local authorities collaborate with non-state actors, especially informal
service providers and community based groups, it would enhance improvement in the sanitation
situation in poor urban localities.