Housing is defined as ―the process of providing a large number of residential
buildings on a permanent basis with adequate physical infrastructure and social
amenities, (services) in planned, decent, safe, and sanitary neighborhoods to meet the
basic and special needs of the population‖ (Federal Ministry of Work and Housing, 2002
in Kuroshi and Bala, 2005). Housing is often regarded as one of the basic human needs. It
ranks second after food and thereafter clothing. According to (Onibokun,1985), it is a
pre-requisite for the survival of man. Housing as a unit of the environment has profound
influence on the health, efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction and general welfare of the
community. It reflects the cultural, social and economic values of a society, as it is the
best physical and historical evidence of the civilization of a country. Adedeji (2004)
argued that housing issues affect the life of individuals as well as that of a nation; hence
both nature and society ascribed great importance to the role it plays to bring about
human comfort. The importance of providing adequate and quality housing in any
country cannot be overstated nor disputed in time or space. It is a stimulant to the
national economy. However, the re-current nature of housing needs and the unending
desire for good housing tend to confirm the widely impression that there is hardly any
society that has been able to cope satisfactorily with its housing requirements (Modupe,

Studies have shown that many residents of urban areas in developing countries
live in inadequate housing and in neighborhoods that lack the basic requirements of
livable environments (Rojas 2000; McLeod, 2001, 2003; Dung-Gwom 2007, 2008). Ooi
and Phua (2007) have observed that most cities in developing world have become centers
where vast numbers of people compete for the most basic social services and
infrastructural facilities: for a room within reach of employment with an affordable rent,
or vacant land on which a shelter can be erected without fear of eviction; for places in
schools; for medical treatment for health problems or injuries, or a bed in a hospital; for
access to clean drinking water; for a place on a bus or train; and for a corner on a
pavement or square to sell some goodsquite apart from the enormous competition for
jobs. Serious challenges continue to exist in urban settlements ranging from scarcity of
public services, marked social inequalities in habitat conditions, social and spatial
segregation, inequality, poverty, unemployment and increased economic vulnerability,
environmental degradation, complexities in the governance structures for urban
environmental service provision, pollution, and vulnerability to technological and natural
disasters (UN Commissions of Sustainable Development, 2004).
Existing realities have however indicated an apparent variation in housing
characteristics across different regions. The consequences of adaptation and restructuring
have resulted into differences in housing quality in different communities. This problem
of differential housing quality is compounded by the very rapid urban growth (Jiboye,
2008). However, studies have shown that the provision of appropriate housing,

particularly for the urban poor constitutes a major challenge to development in most
African countries and developing nations’ at large (Lawanson 2005; Okoye, 2009; and
Jiboye 2009a). Despite increasing emphasis on the need to improve housing, particularly
within the urban areas of the less developed countries (LDCs), a high proportion of the
urban population are deprived of access to good quality housing (Olayiwola et al 2005).
Going by a UN-Habitat estimate, more than one billion of the world’s city residents live
in low quality housing, mostly in the sprawling slums and squatter settlements in
developing countries (UN, 2008). The reality is that this urban housing scenario has
adverse implications on the general wellbeing of the people and portends severe danger
to the socioeconomic and physical development of the nations at large.
Considering the gravity of the housing problems and its effects on the wellbeing
of the people and the nation at large, there is the need for housing improvements in our
cities, and this is predicated on the appreciation of the essence of the house within the
context of human habitation. There is no doubt, that housing remains a basic human need.
Its quality, cost, and availability are crucial to individual’s quality of life. Also, the
location, planning, layout and design make an important contribution to community spirit
and identity, and are significant components of the social dimension of sustainable
development (NAHA, 2006; JIboye, 2009).
In the context of this study, the term ―household‖ refers to all the persons who
occupy a dwelling unit. A ―dwelling unit‖ is a house, an apartment, a group of rooms, or
a single room that is occupied as separate living quarters. A ―separate living quarters‖ is a
dwelling unit which provides facilities for exclusive use of its occupants. The term
neighborhood‖ is defined as a residential area in a particular location of city.

1.2 Statement Problem
According to UN Commissions of Sustainable Development (2004), serious
challenges continue to exist in urban settlements, ranging from scarcity of public
services, marked social inequalities in habitat conditions, congestion, social and spatial
segregation, inequality, poverty, unemployment and increased economic vulnerability,
environmental degradation, complexities in the governance structures for urban
environmental service provision, pollution, and vulnerability to technological and natural
disasters. Residents of urban areas in Ife Central are not eluded of these trends most
especially the regions close to public services.
The urban people bear great burdens of urban environmental risk because of the
situation in which they are forced to live, whether in sprawling squatter settlements of
cities or in the blighted urban centre of Ife Central Local Government State. Quite a
number of problems are associated with poverty on housing condition in Ile-Ife central
area of Osun state which have become deplorable and constituted total nuisance to the
environment. These include environmental deterioration, housing deterioration, facilities
overload, slum creation, squatter housing, overcrowding and socio-spatial disorderliness
among others
The most pathetic feature of Ife-Central local government society today is that
majority of its members are living in a state of destitution. These skewed economic
relations do not reflect the geographic spread of resource endowment; rather it is a
product of classical greed, injustice and selfishness, which is beyond any economic

principle. Though, it is true that where one comes from can be a strong determinant of
one‘s economic status because of difference in opportunities and constraints but what is
happening in our society today differed too much from this.
Housing in its entire ramification is more than shelter as it embraces all
social services and utilities that lead to worthy living. Housing, first and foremost
function as the physical protection, it offers man and his domestic companion against
cultural hazards in his physical environment. Poverty creates slum and change the pattern
of houses which cause the appearance of informal activities, which in turn change the
land use pattern of the community. These changes in land use have an impact on physical
structures, infrastructural facilities and services, socio-economic values and even the
psyche of the residents of the area.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess residential quality in Ife Central Local Government
Area of Osun State. The specific objectives of the study are to:
1. Assess of the socio-economic characteristic of dwellers in Ife-Central
Local Government Area.
2. Assess the housing quality (physical structure of buildings) in Ife-Central
Local Government Area.
3. Examine the infrastructural facilities in the houses; and
4. Examine the relationship between social economic characteristic and
housing conditions in Ife-Central Local Government Area.

1.4 Justification of Study
The relevance of this study to urban development process is to guide in the
formulation of policies that will respond to the utilization of human values in the
development and improvement of housing for the people in Nigeria and other developing
nations. The general lack of concern for social issues has not only been great amongst
policy makers but has been much greater amongst academics especially geographers.
Whereas geographers’ concern for spatial distribution of economic well-being started as
far back as the early sixties (Thompson et al, 1962) that for social well-being otherwise
known variously as ‘quality of life’, ‘level of living’ or ‘social indicators’ started about five
decades ago with the coming of the so-called social indicator movement.
Geographical studies on spatial variations in quality of life are not recent and few
but concentrate largely on the developed countries of the world, particularly the United
States and Britain. While in the developing countries most especially in Nigeria the
concentration had only been on cities. This research work, among other things, intends to
highlight the role of infrastructural development as a vehicle for enhancing the quality of
rural life in a predominantly agrarian rural community. The work is also expected to
identify new methodology for identifying measures of quality of life which have been
generally neglected in geographic research. The results of this study will assist rural
planners, local politicians and administrators in the formulation of appropriate policies
towards transforming the poor living standard of the rural population under their

Source: Authors Digitized Map (2012)

Fig 1.2 Map of Osun State Showing LGAs
Source: Authors Digitized Map (2012)

Fig 1.3 Map of Ile Ife Central Local Government Showing the Political Wards
Source: Authors Digitized Map (2012)

1.5.1 Location and Size.
Ile Central local Government of Osun State as shown in (fig1.1, 1.2 and 1.3) is
located between latitude 7033‘31.313‖N and 7024‘13.316‘‘N, and Longitude 40
28‘45.457‘‘E and 4039‘17.779‘‘E. the region which is found on the south-western part of
Nigeria lies at the intersection of roads from Ibadan (40 miles [64 km] west), Ilesha, and
Ondo (as show in fig1.2). Ife-central is divided into 11 wards (as shown in fig 1.3); Ilare
ward 1, Ilare ward 2, Ilare Ward 3, I;are ward 4, Iremo ward 1, Iremo Ward 2, Iremo
ward 3 iremo ward 4, iremo ward 5, Moore-Ojaja, and Akarabata. It has an area of
111km2 and a population of 167254 as at 2006 census (currently 212793).
1.5.2 Geology, Relief and Drainage system.
Ife-Central is situated on an elevation of about 375metres above mean sea level.
This city is in a bowl-like physical layout as a chain of seven hills surround it. (Eluyemi,
1978) But more than that, the city as observed today sit on a ̳cap-like‘ structure with the
centre as the highest point in the town. (This physical appearance is well observed if one
climbs ̳OkeOloyinbo‘ where the Nigerian Television Authority, Ile-Ife is situated).
Ife-Central is underlain by a basement complex of Nigeria rocks composed
mostly of granitic rocks and schists. The granitic rocks consist banded gneisses and
pegmatites whilst the schists are composed mainly of mica schists, and
sillimanitequartzites. A prominent feature of this geology is the occurrence of basic and
ultrabasic rocks which are commonly found as amphibolites, metapyroxenites, meta-
ultamafites and talc-rich schists. The granitic rocks are repositories for chemical elements
such as potassium, sodium and aluminium, because of the preponderance of feldspar minerals in them. They also contain high amounts of free silica as quartz. On the other
hand mica schists, and sillimanitequiartzite contain mainly aluminium, potassium, and
minor amounts of magnesium, iron and manganese. The minerals of the amphibole schist
parent rocks are green hornblendes, plagioclase, with chlorites, epidotes and a little
quartz whilst the ultramafic rocks contain high magnesia high iron silicates such as talc
and amphiboles in addition to this group of rocks such as nickel, chromium, cobalt and

The varieties of rocks will give rise to sand of different composition giving a
potential glass maker access to several varieties of recipe. For example the granitic rock
will be sources for alumina, and potassium whilst the quartz silliminiteschists are rich
sources for alumina and silica. The manganese content could be derived from soils
overlying weathered high magnesium, high iron mafic ultramafic rocks which are
abundant in Ife and surrounding areas. These rocks are also extensively rich in base
metals such as nickel, and cobalt (Ige et al, 2005) which could have been weathered and
deposited as sand. Mixtures of such sand are still seen today in alluvia sands in and
around Ife Central. It has already been reported that iron masters in Ile-Ife area have
exploited a variant of such sand in making high quality steels (Ige and Rehren, 2003).
1.5.3 Climate
Ife-Central and environment enjoy tropical humid climate. (Adejuwon and Jeje, 1975).
The climate is within the tropical zone with the maximum of 482oC and minimum of 371oC. The
mean minimum temperature reported, ranges from 20oC in January to 23oC in February, whilst
the mean maximum for the hottest month (August), is 27.6oC. The average annual rainfall is
1250mm. The two prevailing seasons are the rainy season (April-October) followed by the dry season (November-March) (Adejuwon and Jeje, 1975). This determines the kind of prevailing
1.5.4 Vegetation and Soil
The predominant kind of vegetation in Ile-Ife is the Rainforest which enjoys rainfall, with
definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750-2000mm (68-78 inches). High
sun shines with evergreen tree with thick canopy. It has been estimated that many millions of
species of plants, insects, and microorganisms are still undiscovered. Tropical rainforests have
been called the ̳‘jewels of the earth‘‘, and the ̳‘world‘s largest pharmacy‘‘, because of their large
number of natural medicines discovered there. The undergrowth in a rainforest is restricted in
many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level. This makes it possible to walk through the
forest. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense,
tangled growth of vines, shrubs, and small trees called a jungle. There are two types of rainforest;
tropical rainforest and temperate rainforest.
The soil of Ife-Central is derived from material of the old basement complex, which is
mainly made up of granitic metamorphosed sedimentary rock. A most significant category of
soils in Ife area is the Itagunmodi series which is well known for its significance in cocoa
cultivation. Soils belonging to this series are some of the best cocoa soils in Western Nigeria
(Adejuwon and Jeje, 1982). The Ife soil series is classified among the miscellaneous well-drained
soils of Central Western Nigeria, which is characterized as having a profile dominated by quartz
gravel and stone, to the extent that fine earth is scarcely measurable in horizons between depths
of 10 30 inches.

1.6 Hypothesis
1. There is no relationships between the Age of building and Materials used for
2. There is no relationship between level of education and Housing Condition.


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