AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNI VERSAL BASI C EDUCATION ( UBE) PROGRAMME IN KOGI STATE

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CHAPTER ONE
I NTRODUCTI ON
1.1 Background to the study
Education has been aptly described as a dynamic agent of
social change that brings about rapid development of nation
[ Obasanjo, 1999] . Thus the need for free educational system to
ensure acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy,
manipulative, communicative and life skills solid foundation for
life- long learning(Tijjani,2004). The Universal Basic Education
(UBE) is an ambitious educational programme, which was
initiated and launched by the government and the people of
Federal Republic of Nigeria to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance
and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate national
development, political consciousness and national integration.s
President Olusegun Obasanjo flagged off the Universal
Basic Education (UBE) programme on the 29th of September
1999 in the historic city of Sokoto in Sokoto state. Universal
Basic Education is a programme initiated by the Federal
government to rectify the existing distortions in the Basic
Education sub-sector of the educational system. The major goals of Universal Basic Education is to bring about positive

changes by making the programme implementation responsive
to the needs of the people and ensuring that the individuals
and communities become actively involved in the provision of
Basic Education just like the slogan “education for all is the
responsibility of all”. Globally, the Universal Basic Education is
conceived to embrace formal Education up to the age of 15
years as well as adult and non-formal Education including
Education of the marginalized groups within the society. The
organization of African Unity (OAU), now African Unity (AU)
Decade of Education for Africa (1997 – 2006), which required
African States to generalize access to quality basic education as
a foundation stone for sustainable socio-economic
development. (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education, 2000).
The specific objectives of the Universal Basic Education
Programme, as outlined in the implementation guidelines of the
Federal Ministry of Education, (2000), are as follows: –
Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness and
a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion.

The provision of free Universal Basic Education for every
Nigerian child of school age.
Reducing drastically the incidence of drop outs from the
formal school system through improved relevance, equality
and efficiency.
Catering for the learning needs of young persons who for
one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling
through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to
the provision and promotion of basic education.
Ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy,
education and ethical, moral and civic values needed for
laying solid foundation for life –long learning.
A Universal Basic Education Commission was established by Act
of the National Assembly as a way of ensuring the proper
implementation of the objectives of the Universal Basic
Education Programme. I t is the responsibility of this
commission to coordinate the activities of the programme
through out its first nine years ‘gestation period’, from 2001 to
2009 and beyond (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.
2000). I t is expected that the compulsory nature of the

Universal Basic Education Programme will ensure that more
girls are enrolled in the primary and junior secondary schools
being the stages that lay the foundation for the educational
attainment of children. The Universal Basic Education guidelines
also aim to correct the gender disparity in education by
ensuring that all children of school age including girls are to
enroll in schools. The UBE programme is intended to be
Universal, free and compulsory, thereby emphasizing that the
parents have obligations to send their children to school.
Furthermore, sanctions will be imposed on persons, societies or
institutions that prevent children, adolescents and youth from
benefiting from the programme. (Nigerian Federal Ministry of
Education,2000). This harsh posture of the Federal Government
in ensuring compliance with the Universal Basic Education
Programme by all citizens is very laudable. I t gives hope of
bridging the wide gender disparity in educational attainment of
children in Nigeria in the near future.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Education has been a tool for development in all nations of the
world including Nigeria.

Therefore, Nigerian government under the leadership of
President Olusegun Obasanjo decided to introduce the
Universal Basic Education [ UBE] programme to rectify the
existing distortions in the Basic Education sub-sector of the
Educational system.
The level of illiteracy is increasing among the populations
that are supposed to be the target of UBE. The rate of school
dropout is increasing daily. Level of skills acquisition does not
seem to be materializing for graduates of UBE. I n view of the
objectives of the Universal Basic Education programme, these
primary constraints to education are supposed to be addressed
by Universal Basic Education. Why then do they still exist
especially in my study area? Kogi state.
Therefore, this study was designed to find out these
problems, why they are not being tackled especially in the
study area , Kogi state.
1.3 Research questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the
researcher into the investigation of the problems thus:

1. I s the effect of Universal Basic Education programme
I mplementation felt in Kogi state by the populace?
2. Has the implementation affected the enrolment of pupils in
Kogi state?
3. What are the opinions of the teachers’ and the UBE
personnel on the implementation of Universal Basic
Education in terms of facilities and infrastructure?
4. Are there qualified and adequate teaching personnel for the
implementation of UBE in Kogi state?
5. What are the conditions of the instructional materials for the
skills acquisition in Kogi state?
1.4 Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference between the opinions of the UBE
personnel and the teachers on the effectiveness of UBE
programme in Kogi state.
2. There is no significant difference between the members of
education board and the teachers on the rate of pupils’ enrolment
into schools as regards to UBE programme in Kogi state.

3. There is no significant difference between the UBE personnel and
the teachers on the provision of facilities for the UBE programme
in Kogi state.
4. There is no significant difference between the UBE personnel and
the teachers in their opinion on the adequacy of instructional
materials for the UBE implementation in Kogi state.
5. There is no significant difference between the opinions of the
personnel of UBE and the teachers of primary and secondary
schools level of the effectiveness of the objectives of UBE
programme.
1.5 Objectives of the study
1. The objective of the study is to appraise the implementation
of the Universal Basic Education programme and the extent
to which it has achieved its aims and objectives.
2. To establish the relationship between the pupils enrolment
and the implementation of the programme.
3. To examine the effect of the programme implementation in
Kogi state.

4. To appraise the relationship between the teachers and the
UBE personnel and the implementation of the programme in
Kogi state.
5. To suggest ways by which constraints identified can be
solved or minimized in Kogi state and Nigeria at large.
1.6 Significance of the study
The significance of the study lies in its concern to
appraise the implementation of the Universal Basic Education
programme and suggest ways of tackling constraints to the
implementation if any. I t is hoped that, if constraints are
identified and solutions proffer, a lot of progress and
improvement will be made in the programme implementation in
Kogi state and Nigeria as country. The study can also provide
the universal Basic Education planners, Administrators, the
government and Associations and Organizations interested in
the Universal Basic Education with vital information on how
best to implement the programme in Nigeria and Kogi state in
particular.

1.7 Basic Assumptions
I t is assumed that Universal Basic Education Programme
has affected the literacy levels of the targeted populace.
I t is also assumed that Universal Basic Education has
helped the beneficiaries in acquiring skills that will enable them
earn a living.
Another basic assumption is that, there are more to be
done in terms of provision of instructional materials and other
infrastructural facilities to make the programme achieve its
aims and objectives.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the study
The study focused attention on the appraisal of the
implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme in
Kogi state with a view to identifying constraints to the
implementation if any and proffering solutions to make the
programme better in terms of implementation in Kogi state.
The study compared the responses of the Universal Basic
Education personnel who are the planners and the teachers in
the Universal Basic Schools who are the implementers of the
outlined plans in ten (10) local government areas of Kogi state.

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