Nigeria’s MDGs 2013 report is the sixth in the series of
monitoring reports, the first of which was released in
2004. The reports track and examine Nigeria’s
progress towards achievement of the MDGs. As with
previous editions, the MDGs 2013 report highlights the
trends and present status of the respective MDGs, and
identifies the key drivers of progress and the major
challenges which should be tackled to improve the
prospects of attaining the targets. The 2013 report is
significant in two major ways. One is that it could well
be the last cumulative assessment before the end-point
assessment. The other is that the report forms a basis
for a last-ditch acceleration of effort towards the
attainment of the MDGs by 2015. It also provides key
lessons and is a critical guide for the post-2015
development agenda. This report resulted from an
inclusive and participatory process connecting federal
and state government agencies, civil society
organisations, professional associations and
international development partners.
Improved growth performance and macroeconomic
stability have, over the last seven years, provided
opportunities for a more rapid progress on the MDGs.
However, translating growth into better living conditions
and shared prosperity remains a major policy
challenge. In general, national progress is mixed
across the MDGs, with varying paces and actual
achievements. MDG outcomes have continued to be
underpinned by rural–urban gaps as well as sharp
geographic differences.
Progress on MDG 1, ‘Eradicate extreme poverty and
hunger’, has been low with respect to the target of
halving the USD 1 a day poverty prevalence. With
poverty at 62.60%, it is not likely that the 2015 target of
21.40% will be met. But, there is a much better outlook
for hunger reduction (Target 2). Given the consistent
progress in the past decade and the current efforts
through the Agricultural Transformation Agenda, it is
possible that the proportion of under-five children that
are underweight – now 24.0% – can be brought down
to 17.85% by 2015.
The outlook for achieving MDG 2, ‘Achieve universal
primary education’ is generally good. In spite of the
staggered trend, Nigeria is on track to meet the 2015
targets. The country has achieved at least 80.0% in all
the three indicators – net enrolment rate, gross
enrolment rate and primary six completion rate. Both
the federal and state governments are currently
intensifying collaborative efforts to promote access to
basic education through targeted local interventions for
enhancing primary school enrolment and retention. It is
likely that MDG 2 will be achieved as these
interventions are accelerated and effectively
As regards MDG 3, ‘Promote gender equality and
empower women’, the trends and status (ratio of girls
to boys in primary enrolment – 90.0%) indicate that the
country is on track to achieving gender parity in
primary and secondary enrolment by 2015. To sustain
that path, government and other key stakeholders
recognise the need to strengthen current interventions
to promote girls’ education and improve the gender
balance by mainstreaming gender responsiveness in
policies and programmes.
Nigeria has made considerable progress on MDG 4 –
‘Reduce child mortality’. Both infant mortality and
under-five mortality rates show trends that indicate that
the pace of progress needs to be quickened over the
remaining period to 2015. At 61 deaths per 1000 live
births, infant mortality lags behind the 2015 target of
30.3 per 1000 live births. Similarly, at 94 deaths per
1000 live births in 2012, the under-five mortality rate
(U5MR) lags behind the 2015 target of 63.7 per 1000
live births. The differences underscore the huge
challenge of child mortality and the need for greater
efforts at the federal and state levels. We are
committed to tackling the challenges, including regional
and rural–urban disparities, in order to close the gaps
between the actual rates and the 2015 goals.
Nigeria has made slow but steady progress towards
the 2015 targets of MDG 5 – ‘Improve maternal health’,
Over the years, the country has witnessed improved
performance on all the three main indicators –
maternal mortality rate, proportion of births attended by
skilled health personnel and antenatal care coverage.
But the maternal mortality rate is 350 per 100,000 live
births against the target of 250 per 100,000 live births.
The proportion of births attended by skilled health
personnel is currently 53.60% against the target of
100.0% and antenatal care coverage (at least one visit)
is currently 67.70%. In order to further improve the
prospects of achieving the overall goal of improved
maternal health, the country has adopted an MDGs
Acceleration Framework (MAF) focusing on this goal.
There are high expectations that the MAF will enable
all the targets of MDG 5 to be achieved by 2015. In
particular, it is hoped that the MAF will enable the wide
state-level disparities, which have tended to lower the
national average performance for this goal, to be
Regarding MDG 6, ‘Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
other diseases’, the outlook is mixed. At the national
level, HIV/AIDS prevalence has stabilised at around 4.10%. In fact, the country has begun to reverse the
spread of HIV/AIDS. But there are some challenges,
such as gender disparities and large variations in
prevalence rates across states, which will be need to
be addressed to further strengthen progress. Also to be
addressed are the current shortfalls in access to
treatment for persons living with HIV/AIDS and the
prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Progress in
these two areas is critical to sustaining the reversal of
the spread of the disease.
Progress on MDG 7, ‘Ensure environmental
sustainability’, is generally slow. At 57.40%, Nigeria
falls short of the 2015 target of 77.0% on access to
clean water. The outlook for access to improved
sanitation, currently at 33.70% against the 2015 target
of 70.0%, remains a significant challenge. Similarly,
about 42.60% of Nigerians had access to improved
toilet/latrine facilities in 2010
, as against the 2015
target of 70.0%. Deforestation and gas flaring continue
to pose major risks to environmental sustainability as
does the growing urban slum population.
The government will strengthen existing national
institutional mechanisms, including the Ecological
Fund, the Environmental Impact Assessment Law and
the National Environmental Standards and Regulations
Enforcement Agency to achieve targets set for the
environment, even if it means going beyond 2015. In
addition, efforts would be made to improve
environmental data collection and reporting for more
efficient and objective future assessments and
Nigeria has made some progress on MDG 8 –
‘Develop a global partnership for development’. Official
development assistance (ODA) per capita has doubled
since the early 2000s. Debt service as a proportion of
exports of goods and services has declined remarkably
from over 10.0% in the early 2000s to 0.39% in 2011.
Over the past decade, Nigeria’s progress in accessing
information and communication technology has been
phenomenal. The growth in cellular phone subscribers
per 100 persons has been globally outstanding and
tele-density has increased sharply to the current high
of 68.49%. Despite this increase, access to the internet
remains low at 28.43%, signifying large scope for